Ruminative thought style and depressed mood.

University of Western Ontario, Canada.
Journal of Clinical Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.12). 01/2009; 65(1):1-19. DOI: 10.1002/jclp.20542
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent research has suggested that the measure most commonly used to assess rumination, the Response Style Questionnaire (RSQ; L. D. Butler & S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1994), may be heavily biased by depressive symptoms, thereby restricting the scope of research exploring this construct. This article offers a broader conceptualization of rumination, which includes positive, negative, and neutral thoughts as well as past and future-oriented thoughts. The first two studies describe the development and evaluation of the Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTS), a psychometrically sound measure of the general tendency to ruminate. Further, the scale is comprised of a single factor and shows high internal consistency, suggesting that rumination does encompasses the factors mentioned. The final study involved a longitudinal diary investigation of rumination and mood over time. Results suggest that the RTS assesses a related, but separate, construct than does the RSQ. RTS scores predicted future depressed mood beyond the variance accounted for by initial depressed mood whereas RSQ scores did not. The implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Freud proposed that the processes which occurred in the primal horde are essential for understanding superego formation and therefore, the successful dissolution of the Oedipus complex. However, Freud theorized superego formation in the primal horde as if it is an instant, all-or-none achievement. The present paper proposes an alternative model aiming to explain gradual development of superego in the primitive man. The proposed model is built on knowledge from evolutionary and neural sciences as well as anthropology, and it particularly focuses on the evolutionary significance of the acquisition of fire by hominids in the Pleistocene period in the light of up-to-date archaeological findings. Acquisition of fire is discussed as a form of sublimation which might have helped Prehistoric man to maximize the utility of limited evolutionary biological resources, potentially contributing to the rate and extent of bodily evolution. The limitations of both Freud's original conceptualization and the present model are discussed accordingly in an interdisciplinary framework.
    Frontiers in Psychology 01/2014; 5:8. · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Distinct behaviors such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and firesetting may represent functionally equivalent attempts to regulate difficult affective/cognitive or social experiences during adolescence. This study examined possible mechanisms leading to NSSI, as opposed to firesetting, as well as co-occurrence of these behaviors. Participants aged 12-18 years (N = 2,356; 67.5 % female) completed self-report questionnaires measuring NSSI and firesetting, as well as socio-demographic and psychosocial factors including personality traits related to impulsivity and anxiety, negative life events, emotion regulation, and coping. The findings indicated the presence of general risk factors (e.g., negative life events and poor coping) that increase the likelihood that adolescents will engage in any of a range of maladaptive behaviors. The probability of at-risk adolescents engaging in NSSI was increased by psychological states (i.e., rumination and poor self-esteem), whereas socio-demographic and personality traits were associated with firesetting. Implications for prevention and early intervention initiatives are discussed.
    Journal of Youth and Adolescence 03/2014; · 2.72 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study explored how cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and facets of ruminative thinking could be brought together in a model to explain non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in the context of experiencing stressful life events and psychological distress. Data from 2,507 participants aged 12-18 years (68% female, mean age 13.93 years) recruited from 40 Australian secondary schools were analysed, including 254 participants with a history of NSSI (72% female, mean age 14.21 years). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire assessing the constructs of interest. Although meeting minimum fit indices, our hypothesized model showed poorer fit compared to an empirically derived model. There was little evidence for the mediating role of psychological distress in NSSI, and we found adverse life events, psychological distress, emotion regulation, and two facets of ruminative thinking (counterfactual thinking and anticipatory thoughts) had direct, though weak, relationships with NSSI. Among the subsample of adolescents with a history of NSSI, anticipatory rumination moderated the relationship between psychological distress and NSSI, while cognitive reappraisal demonstrated a direct, although weak relationship with NSSI. Our observations suggest that, among adolescents, contextual, social, and behavioural factors may have a strong influence on NSSI and this may suggest that prevention and treatment efforts for NSSI among adolescents need to focus on contextual, social, and behavioural factors. Emotion regulation and repetitively dwelling on current problems and concerns are implicated in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) only to the extent they increase or reduce the experience of psychological distress. Prevention and treatment efforts for NSSI among adolescents would be better focused on contextual, social, and behavioural factors than cognitive factors. The cross-sectional nature of the research suggests interpretations regarding the influence of these psychological factors on NSSI can only be speculative and further research is warranted to establish causality. Replication with a larger, more representative sample is warranted.
    British Journal of Clinical Psychology 09/2013; · 1.90 Impact Factor