Ruminative thought style and depressed mood
ABSTRACT Recent research has suggested that the measure most commonly used to assess rumination, the Response Style Questionnaire (RSQ; L. D. Butler & S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1994), may be heavily biased by depressive symptoms, thereby restricting the scope of research exploring this construct. This article offers a broader conceptualization of rumination, which includes positive, negative, and neutral thoughts as well as past and future-oriented thoughts. The first two studies describe the development and evaluation of the Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTS), a psychometrically sound measure of the general tendency to ruminate. Further, the scale is comprised of a single factor and shows high internal consistency, suggesting that rumination does encompasses the factors mentioned. The final study involved a longitudinal diary investigation of rumination and mood over time. Results suggest that the RTS assesses a related, but separate, construct than does the RSQ. RTS scores predicted future depressed mood beyond the variance accounted for by initial depressed mood whereas RSQ scores did not. The implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: Jon Elhai
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "The RTSQ has shown good convergent validity with the Response Style Questionnaire and the Global Rumination Scale (rs¼.396 and.602, respectively), and has shown excellent internal consistency (Brinker and Dozois, 2009). The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) is a 9-item selfreport measure of depressive symptoms. "
ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid (Elhai et al., 2008. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 69, (4), 597-602). Rumination is a cognitive mechanism found to exacerbate and maintain both PTSD and MDD (Elwood et al., 2009. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29, (1), 87-100; Olatunji et al., 2013. Clin. Psychol.: Sci. Pract. 20, (3), 225-257). Assess whether four rumination subtypes moderate the relationship between comorbid PTSD and MDD symptoms. We consecutively sampled patients (N=45) presenting to a mental health clinic using self-report measures of PTSD and MDD symptoms, and rumination in a cross-sectional design. Repetitive rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at one standard deviation above the mean (β=.044, p=.016), while anticipatory rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at mean levels and higher levels of anticipatory rumination (mean β=.030, p=.042; higher β=.060, p=.008). Repetitive and anticipatory rumination should be assessed in the context of comorbid PTSD and MDD and interventions should focus on reducing these rumination subtypes. Results should be replicated with other trauma populations because the number and complexity of traumatic events may impact the assessed symptoms. Constructs should also be assessed longitudinally, in order to establish causality. We are unable to confirm why rumination styles moderated the relationship between PTSD and depression or why counterfactual thinking and problem-focused thinking did not moderate the relationship between the two constructs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2015; 180:116-121. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.006 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "In Mourning and Melancholia, Freud (1917) provided the first clinical account distinguishing depression from healthy forms of sadness by highlighting the presence of abnormal self-criticism “tormenting” the ego. Although Freud did not focus on the possible involvement of inhibitory mechanisms, hyper scrutiny of behavioral motivations and abnormal self-criticism in major depression may be related to the failure of repression, such that these unwanted thoughts become a cardinal object of depressive rumination (Brinker and Dozois, 2009). "
ABSTRACT: Freud proposed that the processes which occurred in the primal horde are essential for understanding superego formation and therefore, the successful dissolution of the Oedipus complex. However, Freud theorized superego formation in the primal horde as if it is an instant, all-or-none achievement. The present paper proposes an alternative model aiming to explain gradual development of superego in the primitive man. The proposed model is built on knowledge from evolutionary and neural sciences as well as anthropology, and it particularly focuses on the evolutionary significance of the acquisition of fire by hominids in the Pleistocene period in the light of up-to-date archaeological findings. Acquisition of fire is discussed as a form of sublimation which might have helped Prehistoric man to maximize the utility of limited evolutionary biological resources, potentially contributing to the rate and extent of bodily evolution. The limitations of both Freud's original conceptualization and the present model are discussed accordingly in an interdisciplinary framework.Frontiers in Psychology 01/2014; 5:8. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00008 · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Total scores could range from 20 to 140. The RTSQ has good convergent validity with the Response Style Questionnaire, the Global Rumination Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory, adequate test–retest reliability and high internal consistency (Brinker and Dozois 2009 "
ABSTRACT: In recent years, increasing concern regarding non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents has prompted investigation of factors that may prevent this behavior. This study examined the relationship between psychological distress and NSSI in a community sample of adolescents, and the moderating effect of both optimism and rumination on this association. Two thousand five hundred seventy-two participants (12-18 years) completed self-report questionnaires assessing psychological distress, cognitive, and emotional characteristics, and NSSI history. Ten percent of the sample reported a history of NSSI, and as hypothesized, optimism moderated the relationship between psychological distress and NSSI; the association was only evident when optimism was low. Rumination was not found to moderate the relationship between psychological distress and NSSI. These findings highlight the utility of considering optimism in NSSI prevention and early intervention programs.Prevention Science 11/2013; 15(6). DOI:10.1007/s11121-013-0444-0 · 2.63 Impact Factor