Ruminative thought style and depressed mood
Recent research has suggested that the measure most commonly used to assess rumination, the Response Style Questionnaire (RSQ; L. D. Butler & S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1994), may be heavily biased by depressive symptoms, thereby restricting the scope of research exploring this construct. This article offers a broader conceptualization of rumination, which includes positive, negative, and neutral thoughts as well as past and future-oriented thoughts. The first two studies describe the development and evaluation of the Ruminative Thought Style Questionnaire (RTS), a psychometrically sound measure of the general tendency to ruminate. Further, the scale is comprised of a single factor and shows high internal consistency, suggesting that rumination does encompasses the factors mentioned. The final study involved a longitudinal diary investigation of rumination and mood over time. Results suggest that the RTS assesses a related, but separate, construct than does the RSQ. RTS scores predicted future depressed mood beyond the variance accounted for by initial depressed mood whereas RSQ scores did not. The implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.
Available from: Ateka Contractor
- "trolling for baseline depression, the RTSQ predicted later negative mood, but the RRS did not (Brinker & Dozois, 2009). The authors of that study suggested the RRS and the Beck Depression Inventory—II (BDI–II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) shared similar variance if they both assessed depressive symptoms. "
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Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) propose that rumination about a trauma may increase particular symptom clusters. One type of rumination, termed counterfactual thinking (CFT), refers to thinking of alternative outcomes for an event. CFT centered on a trauma is thought to increase intrusions, negative alterations in mood and cognitions (NAMC), and marked alterations in arousal and reactivity (AAR). The theorized relations between CFT and specific symptom clusters have not been thoroughly investigated. Also, past work has not evaluated whether the relation is confounded by depressive symptoms, age, gender, or number of traumatic events experienced.
The current study examined the unique associations between CFT and PTSD symptom clusters according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013>) in 51 trauma-exposed treatment-seeking individuals.
As predicted, CFT was associated with all PTSD symptom clusters. After controlling for common predictors of PTSD symptom severity (i.e., age, depressive symptoms, and number of traumatic life events endorsed), we found CFT to be significantly associated with the intrusion and avoidance symptom clusters but not the AAR or NAMC symptom clusters.
Results from the present study provide further support for the role of rumination in specific PTSD symptom clusters above and beyond symptoms of depression, age, and number of traumatic life events endorsed. Future work may consider investigating interventions to reduce rumination in PTSD. (PsycINFO Database Record
Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy 09/2015; DOI:10.1037/tra0000089 · 2.31 Impact Factor
Available from: Jon Elhai
- "The RTSQ has shown good convergent validity with the Response Style Questionnaire and the Global Rumination Scale (rs¼.396 and.602, respectively), and has shown excellent internal consistency (Brinker and Dozois, 2009). The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) is a 9-item selfreport measure of depressive symptoms. "
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ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid (Elhai et al., 2008. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 69, (4), 597-602). Rumination is a cognitive mechanism found to exacerbate and maintain both PTSD and MDD (Elwood et al., 2009. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29, (1), 87-100; Olatunji et al., 2013. Clin. Psychol.: Sci. Pract. 20, (3), 225-257).
Assess whether four rumination subtypes moderate the relationship between comorbid PTSD and MDD symptoms.
We consecutively sampled patients (N=45) presenting to a mental health clinic using self-report measures of PTSD and MDD symptoms, and rumination in a cross-sectional design.
Repetitive rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at one standard deviation above the mean (β=.044, p=.016), while anticipatory rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at mean levels and higher levels of anticipatory rumination (mean β=.030, p=.042; higher β=.060, p=.008).
Repetitive and anticipatory rumination should be assessed in the context of comorbid PTSD and MDD and interventions should focus on reducing these rumination subtypes.
Results should be replicated with other trauma populations because the number and complexity of traumatic events may impact the assessed symptoms. Constructs should also be assessed longitudinally, in order to establish causality. We are unable to confirm why rumination styles moderated the relationship between PTSD and depression or why counterfactual thinking and problem-focused thinking did not moderate the relationship between the two constructs.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2015; 180:116-121. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.006 · 3.38 Impact Factor
Available from: Penelope Hasking
- "The initial scale showed excellent internal consistency (a ¼ .87e.92), and had a high stability coefficient (r ¼ .80) (Brinker & Dozois, 2009). Tanner, Voon, Hasking, and Martin (2013) reported the RTSQ comprised four subscales. "
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ABSTRACT: We examined the roles of cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, and rumination in first episode non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, and the impact of age-related differences in emotion regulation use. Adverse life events and psychological distress played a significant role in NSSI onset. Being male and less use of cognitive reappraisal contributed to NSSI risk but only in regard to 12-month incidence; this effect was not observed when predicting 24-month incidence. Neither expressive suppression nor rumination was related to NSSI onset in our sample. Age-related differences in emotion regulation were found, but did not modify the above relationships. Findings hint at the possible impact of developmental changes in adolescents' cognitive-emotional processing and their subsequent risk of NSSI. Results support further investigation into prevention and early intervention initiatives aimed at assisting adolescents cope with acute life stressors to prevent/delay first episode NSSI.
Journal of Adolescence 08/2014; 37(7):1077-1087. DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.07.020 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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