Distribution of TPMT risk alleles for thiopurine [correction of thioupurine] toxicity in the Israeli population.
ABSTRACT Individuals with intermediate or no thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) activity are at risk of hematotoxicity when treated with standard doses of thiopurines, thus, pretreatment identification of these individuals is of major importance. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of TPMT polymorphic variants, known to functionally impair TPMT activity, in the highly heterogeneous Israeli population.
TPMT genotyping of individuals representing three major demographic groups in Israel was carried out by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism and high-resolution melting.
Frequencies of TPMT risk alleles differed significantly among the screened Israeli subpopulations: Druze showed fivefold and twofold higher frequencies than Jews and Moslems, respectively. Specifically, allelic frequencies of TPMT*3A were 0.73% (95% CI 0.34-1.45%), 0.79% (95% CI 0.16-2.39%), and 3.19% (95% CI 1.78-5.58%) in Jews, Moslems, and Druze, respectively. Although not found in Jews, TPMT*3C was found at an allelic frequency of 1.05% (95% CI 0.31-2.76%) and 0.75% (95% CI 0.02-2.84%) in Moslems and Druze. TPMT*2 and TPMT*3B were not detected in any of the Israeli subpopulations studied.
These data indicate that the Israeli population displays a distinct TPMT genetic variability that is comprised of a mix of three major genetically diverse subpopulations, each with its unique TPMT allelic frequency distribution pattern and likelihood of developing an adverse reaction to thiopurine drugs.
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ABSTRACT: The evidence for testing thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) enzymatic activity or genotype before starting therapy with thiopurine-based drugs is unclear. To examine the sensitivity and specificity of TPMT genotyping for TPMT enzymatic activity, reducing harm from thiopurine by pretesting, and the association of thiopurine toxicity with TPMT status in adults and children with chronic inflammatory diseases. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Ovid HealthSTAR (from inception to December 2010) and BIOSIS and Genetics Abstracts (to May 2009). Two reviewers screened records and identified relevant studies in English. Data on patient characteristics, outcomes, and risk for bias were extracted by one reviewer and independently identified by another. 54 observational studies and 1 randomized, controlled trial were included. Insufficient evidence addressed the effectiveness of pretesting. Genotyping sensitivity to identify patients with low and intermediate TPMT enzymatic activity ranged from 70.33% to 86.15% (lower-bound 95% CI, 54.52% to 70.88%; upper-bound CI, 78.50% to 96.33%). Sparse data precluded estimation of genotype sensitivity to identify patients with low to absent enzymatic activity. Genotyping specificity approached 100%. Compared with noncarriers, heterozygous and homozygous genotypes were both associated with leukopenia (odds ratios, 4.29 [CI, 2.67 to 6.89] and 20.84 [CI, 3.42 to 126.89], respectively). Compared with intermediate or normal activity, low TPMT enzymatic activity was significantly associated with myelotoxicity and leukopenia. Available evidence was not rigorous and was underpowered to detect a difference in outcomes. Insufficient evidence addresses the effectiveness of TPMT pretesting in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases. Estimates of the sensitivity of genotyping are imprecise. Evidence confirms the known associations of leukopenia or myelotoxicity with reduced TPMT activity or variant genotype. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.Annals of internal medicine 06/2011; 154(12):814-23, W-295-8. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is a key enzyme that deactivates thiopurines, into their inactive metabolite, 6-methylmercaptopurine. Intermediate and low TPMT activity may lead to leukopenia following thiopurine treatment. The aim of this study was to determine TPMT activity and TPMT alleles (genotype-phenotype correlation) in Jews, aiming to develop an evidence-based pharmacogenetic assay for this population. TPMT activity was determined in 228 Jewish volunteers by high performance liquid chromatography. Common allelic variants in the Caucasian population [TPMT*2 (G238C), TPMT *3A (G460A and A719G), TPMT* 3B (G460A) and TPMT*3C (A719G)] were tested. Phenotype-genotype correlation was examined and discordant cases were fully sequenced to identify novel genetic variants. Mean TPMT activity was 15.4 ± 4 U/ml red blood cells (range 1-34). Intermediate activity was found in 33/228 (14 %) subjects and absent activity was found in one sample (0.4 %). Only eight individuals (3.5 % of the entire cohort and 24 % of those with intermediate/low activity) were identified as carriers of a TPMT genetic variant, all of whom had the TPMT*3A allele. Sequencing the entire TPMT coding region and splice junctions in the remainder of the discordant cases did not reveal any novel variants. Genotyping TPMT in Jews yields a much lower rate of variants than identified in the general Caucasian population. We conclude that a biochemical assay to determine TPMT enzymatic activity should be performed in Jews before starting thiopurine treatment in order to identify low activity subjects.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 01/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The genetic polymorphism of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is well characterized in most populations. Four common polymorphic alleles are associated with impaired activity of the enzyme. These are TPMT*2 (238G>C), TPMT*3B (c.460G>A), TPMT*3A (c.460G>A and c.719A>G) and TPMT*3C (c.719A>G). The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of TPMT polymorphisms and their association with the occurrence of adverse events, during 6-mercaptopurine therapy in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemic (ALL) patients in Gaza Strip. Methods A total of 56 DNA samples from all pediatric ALL patients admitted to the pediatric hematology departments of Gaza strip hospitals were analyzed. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes was isolated and the TPMT*2, TPMT*3B TPMT*3A and TPMT*3C allelic polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP and allele specific PCR technique. Results No TPMT*2, *3B or *3C alleles were detected. Only one, out of 56 patients, was found heterozygous for the TPMT*3A allele. Thus, the frequency of TPMT*3A allele was calculated to be 0.89%. Fourteen patients of ALL were suffering from myelotoxicity during 6-MP therapy. From our results, no significant association could be established between clinical and laboratory data and/or the presence of the mutation in TPMT gene. Conclusion TPMT*3A was the only deficiency allele detected in our population with an allelic frequency of 0.89%. Other polymorphic alleles in TPMT gene, or factors other than TPMT polymorphisms may be responsible for the development of myelosuppression in cases that don’t carry the investigated TPMT alleles (*2, *3A, *3B and *3C). Therefore, more studies are recommended to study such factors.BMC Hematology. 01/2013; 13(1).