DNA hypermethylation profiles in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
ABSTRACT Gene silencing through promoter hypermethylation is a growing concept in the development of human cancers. In this study, we examined the contribution of aberrant methylation of promoter regions in methylation-prone tumor suppressors to the pathogenesis of vulvar cancer. Thirteen cell lines from 12 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were evaluated for aberrant methylation status and gene copy number alterations, concomitantly, using the methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay. Of the 22 tumor suppressor genes examined, aberrant methylation was observed for 9 genes: tumor protein p73 (TP73), fragile histidine triad (FHIT), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B), death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP1), and immunoglobin superfamily, member 4 (IGSF4). The most frequently methylated genes included TP73 in 9 of 13 cell lines, and IGSF4, DAPK1, and FHIT in 3 of 13 cell lines. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction was performed for TP73 and FHIT to confirm aberrant methylation by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. In the context of gene copy number and methylation status, both copies of the TP73 gene were hypermethylated. Loss or decreased mRNA expression of TP73 and IGSF4 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed aberrant methylation. Frequent genetic alterations of loss and gain of gene copy number included gain of GSTP1 and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), and loss of malignant fibrous histiocytoma amplified sequence 1 (MFHAS1) and IGSF4 in over 50% of the squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva cell lines. These findings underscore the contribution of both genetic and epigenetic events to the underlying pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
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ABSTRACT: Frequent allelic losses of 11q23 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have been reported previously, but no tumor suppressor genes in this region have been identified in ESCC. TSLC1 was identified on chromosome 11q23.2 as a tumor suppressor gene in non-small cell lung cancer by functional complementation of a lung adenocarcinoma cell line. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of TSLC1 in ESCC. Loss of TSLC1 expression was observed by reverse transcription-PCR in 75% of the cell lines (27 of 36) and 50% of the primary tumors from ESCC patients (28 of 56). In a clinicopathological analysis, loss of TSLC1 expression correlated significantly with depth of invasion (pT) and status of metastasis (pM; P = 0.012 and 0.036, respectively). Patients with tumors lacking TSLC1 expression tended to have a poorer prognosis than those with tumors expressing TSLC1. (P = 0.079). Moreover, TSLC1 expression was an independent prognostic factor in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.049). Methylation analyses revealed that TSLC1 expression or loss correlated with the promoter methylation status, as determined by bisulfite sequencing, and that TSLC1 expression could be restored by a demethylating agent in certain cell lines. The growth of TSLC1-transfected ESCC cells was significantly suppressed both in vitro and in vivo (P < 0.01), possibly by a G(1) cell cycle arrest. TSLC1 expression also suppressed motility and invasion of ESCC cells in vitro significantly (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that loss of TSLC1 expression has an important role in tumor growth, cell motility, and invasion and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior in ESCC.Cancer Research 10/2003; 63(19):6320-6. · 7.86 Impact Factor
Article: 5' CpG island methylation of the FHIT gene is correlated with loss of gene expression in lung and breast cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Allele loss and loss of expression of fragile histidine triad (FHIT), a putative tumor suppressor gene located in chromosome region 3p14.2, are frequent in several types of cancers. Tumor-acquired methylation of promoter region CpG islands is one method for silencing tumor suppressor genes. We investigated 5' CpG island methylation of the FHIT gene in 107 primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples and corresponding nonmalignant lung tissues, 39 primary breast carcinomas, as well as in 49 lung and 22 breast cancer cell lines by a methylation-specific PCR assay. In addition, we analyzed brushes from the bronchial epithelium of 35 heavy smokers without cancer. FHIT methylation was detected in 37% of primary NSCLCs, 31% of primary breast cancers, and 65% of lung and 86% of breast cancer cell lines. The frequency of methylation in small cell and NSCLC cell lines were identical. Methylation was found in 9% of the corresponding nonmalignant lung tissues and in 17% of bronchial brushes from heavy cigarette smokers. FHIT methylation was significantly correlated with loss of FHIT mRNA expression by Northern blot analysis in lung cancer cell lines and with loss of Fhit expression in NSCLC and breast tumors by immunostaining. We conclude that methylation of FHIT is a frequent event in NSCLC and breast cancers and is an important mechanism for loss of expression of this gene. Methylation of FHIT commences during lung cancer pathogenesis and may represent a marker for risk assessment.Cancer Research 06/2001; 61(9):3581-5. · 7.86 Impact Factor
Article: Status of reduced expression and hypermethylation of the APC tumor suppressor gene in human oral squamous cell carcinoma.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC gene) originally was identified as a tumor suppressor gene in colon cancer. We reported previously that APC is mutated and/or deleted in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissues and suggested that loss of APC function contributes to carcinogenesis in the oral region. In this study, we examined 50 OSCC tissue samples, which had been fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde solution and embedded in paraffin, and eight cell lines, which were derived from OSCC, to analyze the expression level of the APC gene. Significant down-regulation of APC was detected by immunohistochemistry in 15 (30.0%) of 50 tissue samples and by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in five (62.5%) of eight cell lines. We then investigated the status of APC gene promoter methylation and restoration of the APC gene mRNA. Hypermethylation of the APC promoter CpG island was detected in two of eight (25%) OSCC-derived cell lines, and APC gene mRNA was restored in all OSCC-derived cell lines showing down-regulation of gene expression (n=5) after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA demethylating agent. Thus, the contribution of down-regulated APC expression to the development of human OSCC was about 30%, and hypermethylation of the gene promoter CpG island was confirmed to be a significant mechanism of inactivation of the APC gene in oral carcinogenesis.International Journal of Molecular Medicine 05/2005; 15(4):597-602. · 1.98 Impact Factor