Matrix-producing Carcinoma of the Breast: An Aggressive Subtype of Metaplastic Carcinoma

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
The American journal of surgical pathology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 12/2008; 33(4):534-41. DOI: 10.1097/PAS.0b013e31818ab26e
Source: PubMed


Matrix-producing carcinoma (MPC) of the breast is a subtype of metaplastic carcinoma defined as an invasive breast carcinoma with a direct transition of carcinoma to cartilaginous or osseous matrix without an intervening spindle cell component. Our aims were (1) to evaluate specific histologic characteristics of MPC and correlate these with disease recurrence; and (2) to determine whether rates of locoregional and distant recurrence for MPC are significantly different from those of invasive ductal carcinoma. Thirty-two cases of MPC were identified. Fourteen patients (44%) were < or =50 years of age; 10 (31%) had tumors of size < or =2 cm, and 6 (19%) had tumors > or =5 cm. In this series, all tumors contained chondromyxoid or chondroid matrix, and 1 (3.1%) also contained focal (<5%) osseous matrix. High-grade matrix was present in 9 cases (28%), and low-grade matrix was present in 23 (72%). Matrix comprised < or =10% of the tumor in 14 cases (44%), >10% but <40% in 9 (28%), and > or =40% in 9 (28%). The carcinomatous component was high grade in 30 cases (94%), and 19 tumors (59%) had central necrosis. Seven patients (22%) had positive axillary lymph nodes, and 8 (25%) had lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI). LVSI was the only factor independently associated with locoregional recurrence-free survival in multivariate analysis (P=0.043). Although > or =40% matrix was associated with improved distant recurrence-free (DFS) survival in univariate analysis (P=0.044), only LVSI and tumor stage were independently associated with DFS survival in multivariate analysis (P=0.027 and P=0.001, respectively). Compared with matched controls with invasive ductal carcinoma, patients with MPC had decreased locoregional recurrence-free survival (P=0.001) and decreased DRF survival (P=0.001). In summary, MPC is an aggressive subtype of metaplastic carcinoma with a worse clinical outcome than invasive ductal carcinoma.

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    • "Matrix-producing carcinoma and biphasic metaplastic sarcomatoid carcinoma (carcinosarcoma) are aggressive subtypes of MBC with a worse clinical outcome than conventional invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) with a decreased locoregional recurrence-free survival (p = 0.001) and decreased distant recurrence-free survival (p = 0.001) [25]. Several investigators are suggesting modified radical mastectomy with adjuvant treatment (radiation and/or chemotherapy) for patients with aggressive subtypes of MBC, particularly for patients with T2 and higher stage disease [25,26]. Dave et al. [24] have shown BCT is equivalent to mastectomy in terms of survival. "
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix-producing carcinoma (MPC) of the breast is one variant type of metaplastic carcinoma. The cellular origin of MPC remains unclear. It has been suggested the tumor cells in MPC have the combined characteristics of both epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells. Several reports suggested that the tumor cells in MPC might originate from the myoepithelial cells, but others suggested the origin was basal-like cells. The patient was a 42-year-old Japanese female. A tumor of about 2 cm in diameter was noted in the right breast. CT revealed the circumference of the tumor to have a ring-like structure, and fine needle aspiration cytology indicated suspicion for malignancy. Breast-conserving surgery was performed. Histopathological studies showed carcinoma cells, having cuboidal to oval-shaped nucleus, were proliferating in cord-like and sheet-like structures in the periphery. In the central areas of the tumor, myxoedematous area was observed with cartilaginous matrix and necrosis. The diagnosis was a matrix-producing carcinoma. Immunohistochemical findings showed the tumor cells had the characteristics of both epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells, while being negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Her2, myoepithelial cell markers and basal cell markers. The findings for our present patient and many of the other MPC patients reported in the published literature indicate that this breast cancer has the properties of both epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells. In addition, there is a possibility that matrix-producing tumor cells of our present patient may have a feature of undifferentiated cells.
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