Disparate estimates of hypertension control from ambulatory and clinic blood pressure measurements in hypertensive kidney disease.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, Harlem Hospital Center, New York, NY 10037, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 7.63). 01/2009; 53(1):20-7. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.115154
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring provides unique information about day-night patterns of blood pressure (BP). The objectives of this article were to describe ABP patterns in African Americans with hypertensive kidney disease, to examine the joint distribution of clinic BP and ABP, and to determine associations of hypertensive target organ damage with clinic BP and ABP. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the African American Study of Kidney Disease Cohort Study. Masked hypertension was defined by elevated daytime (>or= 135/85 mm Hg) or elevated nighttime (>or= 120/70 mm Hg) ABP in those with controlled clinic BP (<140/90 mm Hg); nondipping was defined by a <or= 10% decrease in mean nighttime systolic BP; reverse dipping was defined by a higher nighttime than daytime systolic BP. Of the 617 participants (mean age: 60.2 years; 62% male; mean estimated glomerular filtration rate: 43.8 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) with both clinic BP and ABP, 498 participants (80%) had a nondipping or reverse dipping profile. Of the 377 participants with controlled clinic BP (61%), 70% had masked hypertension. Compared with those with controlled clinic BP or white-coat hypertension, target organ damage (proteinuria and left ventricular hypertrophy) was more common in those with elevated nighttime BP, masked hypertension, or sustained hypertension. In conclusion, clinic BP provides an incomplete and potentially misleading assessment of the severity of hypertension in African Americans with hypertensive kidney disease, in large part because of increased nighttime BP. Whether lowering nighttime BP improves clinical outcomes is unknown but should be tested given the substantial burden of BP-related morbidity in this population.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus have grown significantly throughout the world, due primarily to the increase in type 2 diabetes. This overall increase in the number of people with diabetes has had a major impact on development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), one of the most frequent complications of both types of diabetes. DKD is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), accounting for approximately 50% of cases in the developed world. Although incidence rates for ESRD attributable to DKD have recently stabilized, these rates continue to rise in high-risk groups such as middle-aged African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanics. The costs of care for people with DKD are extraordinarily high. In the Medicare population alone, DKD-related expenditures among this mostly older group were nearly $25 billion in 2011. Due to the high human and societal costs, the Consensus Conference on Chronic Kidney Disease and Diabetes was convened by the American Diabetes Association in collaboration with the American Society of Nephrology and the National Kidney Foundation to appraise issues regarding patient management, highlighting current practices and new directions. Major topic areas in DKD included 1) identification and monitoring, 2) cardiovascular disease and management of dyslipidemia, 3) hypertension and use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade and mineralocorticoid receptor blockade, 4) glycemia measurement, hypoglycemia, and drug therapies, 5) nutrition and general care in advanced-stage chronic kidney disease, 6) children and adolescents, and 7) multidisciplinary approaches and medical home models for health care delivery. This current state summary and research recommendations are designed to guide advances in care and the generation of new knowledge that will meaningfully improve life for people with DKD.
    Diabetes Care 10/2014; 37(10):2864-2883. · 8.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have examined control rates of office blood pressure (BP) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, recent evidence suggests major discrepancies between office and 24-hour BP values in hypertensive populations. This study examined concordance/discordance between office- and ambulatory-based BP control in a large cohort of patients with CKD. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 5,693 hypertensive individuals with CKD stages 1-5 from the Spanish ABPM (ambulatory BP monitoring) Registry. PREDICTORS: Thresholds of 140/90 and 130/80 mm Hg for office BP and 24-hour ambulatory BP, respectively. Age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension duration, kidney measures, diabetes, dyslipidemia, target-organ damage, and cardiovascular comorbid conditions. OUTCOMES: Misclassification of BP control as "white-coat" hypertension (office BP ≥140/90 mm Hg, 24-hour BP <130/80 mm Hg) or masked hypertension (office BP <140/90 mm Hg, 24-hour BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). MEASUREMENTS: Standardized office-based BP and 24-hour ABPM. RESULTS: Mean age was 61.0 ± 13.9 (SD) years and 52.6% were men. The proportion with white-coat hypertension was 28.8% (36.8% of patients with office BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and that of masked hypertension was 7.0% (but 32.1% of patients with office BP <140/90 mm Hg). Male sex, aging, obesity, and target-organ damage were associated with white-coat hypertension; aging and obesity were associated with masked hypertension. Only 21.7% and 8.1% of the CKD population had office BP <140/90 and <130/80 mm Hg, respectively. In contrast, 43.5% of individuals had average 24-hour BP <130/80 mm Hg. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design, longitudinal associations cannot be established. CONCLUSIONS: Misclassification of BP control at the office was observed in 1 of 3 hypertensive patients with CKD. Ambulatory-based control rates were far better than office-based rates. Nevertheless, the burden of uncontrolled ambulatory BP and misclassification of BP control at the office constitutes a call for wider use of ABPM to evaluate the success of hypertension treatment in patients with CKD.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 05/2013; · 5.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: African Americans with hypertension are at high risk for adverse outcomes from cardiovascular and renal disease. Patients with stage 3 or greater chronic kidney disease have a high prevalence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Our goal was to study prospectively the relationships of LV mass and diastolic function with subsequent cardiovascular and renal outcomes in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension cohort study. Of 691 patients enrolled in the cohort, 578 had interpretable echocardiograms and complete relevant clinical data. Exposures were LV hypertrophy and diastolic parameters. Outcomes were cardiovascular events requiring hospitalization or causing death; a renal composite outcome of doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease (censoring death); and heart failure. We found strong independent relationships between LV hypertrophy and subsequent cardiovascular (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.27) events, but not renal outcomes. After adjustment for LV mass and clinical variables, lower systolic tissue Doppler velocities and diastolic parameters reflecting a less compliant LV (shorter deceleration time and abnormal E/A ratio) were significantly (P<0.05) associated with future heart failure events. This is the first study to show a strong relationship among LV hypertrophy, diastolic parameters, and adverse cardiac outcomes in African Americans with hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These echocardiographic risk factors may help identify high-risk patients with chronic kidney disease for aggressive therapeutic intervention.
    Hypertension 07/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014