Thymidylate synthase polymorphisms and risks of human orofacial clefts
ABSTRACT Underlying mechanisms are unknown by which folic acid use in early pregnancy may reduce risks of orofacial clefts. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is a folate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes reductive methylation of deoxyuridylate to thymidylate, thereby playing a central role in DNA synthesis and repair. We investigated two TYMS functional variants (a 28-bp tandem repeat in the promoter enhancer region of the 5'-UTR; and TYMS 1494del6 (rs16430): a 6-bp deletion in the 3'-UTR) for their risk of cleft palate (CP) and of cleft lip with/without CP (CLP). We investigated effect measure modification between these variants and maternal folate intake for cleft risk.
This case-control study included deliveries from July 1999 to June 2003 from select areas of California. Case groups included CLP or CP alone. Nonmalformed, liveborn controls were randomly selected. Maternal interviews provided information on vitamin use and dietary folate intake. DNA was derived from newborn bloodspots.
Data were available for 304 CLP cases, 123 CP cases, and 581 controls. 1496del6 variants did not appear to influence risk of CP or CLP. Homozygosity for the 28-bp VNTR variant influenced CP risk (odds ratios, OR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.1), particularly among Hispanic infants, OR 2.1 (1.0-4.6). Effect measure modification was observed between the 28-bp VNTR and combined folate intake for CP with an OR of 10.0 (1.6-60.9).
Although these findings are consistent with biological mechanisms, they were based on relatively small sample sizes and may represent false-positive discoveries. Replication is warranted in other populations. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 97:95-100, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to address the inconsistencies in association studies, specifically with reference to methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism in the light of gene-gene and gene-nutrient interactions. A case-control study was conducted to analyze four genetic polymorphisms i.e. thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 5'-UTR 28 bp tandem repeat, MTHFR C677T, methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) A2756G, methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR) A66G using PCR-AFLP and PCR-RFLP methods; plasma folate and B12 using AxSYM kits; plasma homocysteine by reverse phase HPLC and nitric oxide using Griess reaction. Fisher's exact test, logistic regression analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis were used for statistical analysis of genetic parameters. Student's t-test was used for biochemical parameters. MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G were found to increase the risk for CAD by 1.61-fold (95% CI: 1.04-2.50) and 1.92-fold (95% CI: 1.29-2.87) whereas TYMS 2R allele was found to reduce the risk for CAD (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.49-0.88) by counteracting MTHFR and MTRR variant alleles. Significant gene-gene interactions were observed among TYMS/MTRR (P < 0.0001), MTR/TYMS/MTRR (P < 0.0001), and MTHFR/MTR/TYMS/MTRR (P < 0.0001). MTHFR was found to increase the risk (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.28-4.37) only in the absence of the TYMS 2R allele, with marked impairment of the remethylation process (P = 0.007). This impairment was predominant when the dietary folate was in the lowest tertile. In subjects with dietary folate intake in the highest tertile, no such impairment was observed. Dietary folate status and TYMS 5'-UTR 28bp tandem repeat polymorphism are important effect modifiers of CAD risk associated with genetic variants in remethylating genes.Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 10/2010; 18(1):56-64. DOI:10.5551/jat.5702 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Folate is a water-soluble B vitamin that must be obtained in the diet or through supplementation. For >50 yr, it has been known that folate plays an integral role in embryonic development. In mice, inactivation of genes in the folate pathway results in malformations of the neural tube, heart, and craniofacial structures. It has been shown that diets and blood levels of women who had a fetus with a neural tube defect are low for several micronutrients, particularly folate. Periconceptional use of folic acid containing supplements decreased recurrent neural tube defects in the offspring of women with a previously affected child and the occurrence of a neural tube defect and possibly other birth defects in the offspring of women with no prior history. Based on these findings, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women at risk take folic acid supplements, but many did not. Mandatory food fortification programs were introduced in numerous countries, including the United States, to improve folate nutritional status and have resulted in a major decrease in neural tube defect prevalence. The success story of folate represents the cooperation of embryologists, experimentalists, epidemiologists, public health scientists, and policymakers.The FASEB Journal 11/2010; 24(11):4167-74. DOI:10.1096/fj.10-165084 · 5.48 Impact Factor
Article: Reexamining a proposal[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The DNA replicative gene, thymidylate synthase (TYMS), is inhibited upon treatment with the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU). TYMS has 28-bp tandem repeat sequences or VNTR (variable numbers of tandem repeats) in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR). The number of these repeats is variable in any given population, but the most prevalent are double (2R) and triple (3R) repeat sequences. A single G/C nucleotide polymorphism in the triple repeat sequence gives rise to a 3Rc or a 3Rg triple repeat structure. A widely cited literature used plasmid constructs of the 5'-UTR and proposed that genotyping the TYMS UTRs would predict the efficiency of Tyms protein translation, justifying altered therapeutic dosage of 5FU. Prior studies had unusual features in experimental design, such as using the firefly Kozak sequence in place of the native human TYMS Kozak sequence to determine the ribosomal translational efficiency of TYMS mRNA. Our results using transient transfection, antibiotic-selected pools of transfected cells, and stably transfected clones, while using plasmids having native human Kozak sequence, refute the earlier results.Cancer biology & therapy 10/2011; 12(8):750-5. DOI:10.4161/cbt.12.8.16867 · 3.63 Impact Factor