Campylobacteriosis outbreaks in the state of Hesse, Germany, 2005-2011: raw milk yet again
ABSTRACT Background: Campylobacter is the most frequently reported cause of acute infectious diarrhea in Germany. Campylobacter outbreaks are rare events. However, their investigation provides useful information on risks of infection and unused prevention potentials.Methods: We analyzed the Hessian database for notifiable diseases for cases of campylobacteriosis reported from 2005 through 2011. For campylobacter outbreaks including five or more cases we prospectively obtained additional information from local public health authorities.Results: From 2005 through 2011, 29,473 cases of campylobacteriosis were reported in Hesse, Germany (approx. 6 million inhabitants), yielding an annual incidence ranging from 53.4 to 81.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Only 236 cases were part of 16 outbreaks with five or more cases. Among these, six outbreaks occurred among groups traveling outside Germany, four were associated with the consumption of raw milk. For eight outbreaks consumption of poultry was considered a probable or - based on the frequent consumption of poultry during group travel - possible vehicle of infection. Two of the raw-milk associated outbreaks were reported among two groups who visited the same farm within 18 days. Five of 14 members of several families and 77 of 117 students fell sick. The local public health authority was only informed when both groups had visited the farm.Conclusion: The reported outbreaks can be attributed to known risk factors for campylobacteriosis - consumption of raw milk and poultry and international travel. This underlines that prevention possibilities are insufficiently used. These include avoiding the consumption of unpasteurized milk and milk products, the hygienically correct handling of raw poultry and timely identification and notification of outbreaks to public health authorities.
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ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of the last century. The incidence and prevalence of campylobacteriosis have increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The dramatic increase in North America, Europe, and Australia is alarming, and data from parts of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East indicate that campylobacteriosis is endemic in these areas, especially in children. In addition to C. jejuni, there is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of emerging Campylobacter species, including Campylobacter concisus and Campylobacter ureolyticus. Poultry is a major reservoir and source of transmission of campylobacteriosis to humans. Other risk factors include consumption of animal products and water, contact with animals, and international travel. Strategic implementation of multifaceted biocontrol measures to reduce the transmission of this group of pathogens is paramount for public health. Overall, campylobacteriosis is still one of the most important infectious diseases that is likely to challenge global health in the years to come. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the global epidemiology, transmission, and clinical relevance of Campylobacter infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.Clinical microbiology reviews 07/2015; 28(3):687-720. DOI:10.1128/CMR.00006-15 · 16.00 Impact Factor
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DESCRIPTION: Risk profile from the NZ perspective, available on the MPI website