BACKGROUND: Although the Medicare Part D coverage gap phase-out should reduce cost-related nonadherence (CRN) among seniors with diabetes, preferential generic prescribing may have already decreased CRN, while smaller numbers of patients using more costly branded oral anti-diabetic (OAD) medications remain vulnerable to CRN. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effects of cost sharing in the Part D standard (non-LIS) benefit on adherence to different OAD classes, comparing two classes dominated by inexpensive generic medications and two by more costly branded medications. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Retrospective cohort study using dispensed prescription data for elderly non-LIS (N = 81,047) and LIS (low-income subsidy) (N = 150,359) beneficiaries using same class OAD(s) in 2008 and 2009. Logistic regression modeled non-LIS likelihood; LIS and non-LIS patients matched using propensity outcome (N = 38,054). Logistic regression, controlling for demographic and health status characteristics, modeled effects of non-LIS coverage on 2009 OAD class adherence. MAIN MEASURES: Main outcome measures were within-class OAD coverage year adherence, with patients considered adherent when days supplied to calendar days ratio at least 0.8. KEY RESULTS: Non-LIS patients had 0.52 and 0.57 times the odds of branded-only DPP-4 Inhibitor (N = 1,812; 95 % CI: 0.43, 0.63; P < 0.001) and Thiazolidinedione (TZD) (N = 6,290; 95 % CI: 0.52, 0.63; P < 0.001) adherence. Most patients (N = 32,510; 82 %) used OADs in primarily generic classes, where we found no significant (Biguanides; N = 21,377) or small differences (Sulfonylureas/Glinides [N = 19,240; OR: 0.91; 95 % CI: 0.86, 0.97; P = 0.002]) in adherence odds. Crude adherence rates were sub-optimal when CRN was not a factor (Non-LIS/LIS: Biguanides: 65 %/65 %; Sulfonylureas/Glinides: 66 %/68 %; LIS: DPP-4 Inhibitors: 66 %; TZDs: 67 %). CONCLUSIONS: Gap elimination would not affect generic, but should reduce branded OAD CRN. Branded copayments may continue to lead to CRN. Policy initiatives and benefit changes targeting both cost deterrents for patients with more complex disease and non-cost generic OAD underuse are recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Automatic therapeutic substitution (ATS) is a mechanism that, upon patient hospitalization, prompts the pharmacist to exchange an equivalent formulary drug for a nonformulary medication, typically without prescriber contact. In facilities utilizing ATS, there is the possibility that physicians and patients may be unaware of the substitution, potentially leading to drug-drug interactions, therapeutic duplication, and/or increased patient expense following discharge should the original regimen not be resumed. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which hospitalized patients subjected to an ATS protocol were not returned to outpatient drug therapy.
A retrospective chart review of adult patients admitted to an academic medical center between January 1 and June 30, 2011, was conducted. Patients were included if they were admitted on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, antidepressants, nonsedating antihistamines, histamine (H2) receptor antagonists, or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and were then prescribed a different agent via ATS. Admission and discharge medication reconciliation documents, dictated discharge summaries, and patient education documentation reports were reviewed for drug therapies and doses, as well as medication counseling evidence. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients not returned to original outpatient therapy following ATS. Secondary endpoints included prescribing events in patients not returned to original therapy, the rate and source of drug therapy counseling at discharge, and the number of patients discharged on a potentially cost-prohibitive drug, defined as any drug available only as a branded product during the study period.
A total of 317 interventions were identified through review of pharmacy records. Of these, 47 patients (15%) were not returned to original outpatient therapy. Within this subsection, 15 patients (32%) were discharged on the substituted drug, eight patients (17%) resumed initial therapy but received a dosage adjustment from previous outpatient therapy, and three patients (6%) were discharged on a drug that was neither the substituted product nor the previous outpatient therapy. The remaining 21 patients had therapy discontinued (n = 12/47, 26%) or lacked documentation of discharge therapy (9/47, 19%). Nursing staff provided medication counseling to 288 of the 317 patients (91%). Overall, 51 patients (16%) were identified as receiving a cost-prohibitive drug.
Patients subject to ATS of commonly substituted drug classes were returned to their original outpatient drug therapy more than 85% of the time following inpatient hospitalizations, with similar rates of medication counseling at discharge. The prescribing of cost-prohibitive drugs has been identified as a potential area for pharmacist intervention at discharge.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information is limited regarding utilization patterns and costs for chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) medications in Medicare Part D-enrolled dialysis patients.
Retrospective cohort study.
Annual cohorts of dialysis patients, 2007-2010.
Cohort year, low-income subsidy status, and dialysis provider.
Utilization and costs of prescription phosphate binders, oral and intravenous vitamin D analogues, and cinacalcet.
Using logistic regression, we calculated adjusted odds of medication use for low-income subsidy versus non-low-income subsidy patients and for patients from various dialysis organizations, and we report per-member-per-month and average out-of-pocket costs.
Phosphate binders (∼83%) and intravenous vitamin D (77.5%-79.3%) were the most commonly used CKD-MBD medications in 2007 through 2010. The adjusted odds of prescription phosphate-binder, intravenous vitamin D, and cinacalcet use were significantly higher for low-income subsidy than for non-low-income subsidy patients. Total Part D versus CKD-MBD Part D medication costs increased 22% versus 36% from 2007 to 2010. For Part D-enrolled dialysis patients, CKD-MBD medications represented ∼50% of overall net Part D costs in 2010.
Inability to describe utilization and costs of calcium carbonate, an over-the-counter agent not covered under Medicare Part D; inability to reliably identify prescriptions filled through a non-Part D reimbursement or payment mechanism; findings may not apply to dialysis patients without Medicare Part D benefits or with Medicare Advantage plans, or to pediatric dialysis patients; could identify only prescription drugs dispensed in the outpatient setting; inability to adjust for MBD laboratory values.
Part D net costs for CKD-MBD medications increased at a faster rate than costs for all Part D medications in dialysis patients despite relatively stable use within medication classes. In a bundled environment, there may be incentives to shift to generic phosphate binders and reduce cinacalcet use.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 05/2014; 64(5). DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.04.014 · 5.90 Impact Factor
Woo-Jung Song, Ina Sintobin, Kyoung-Hee Sohn, Min-Gyu Kang, Han-Ki Park, Eun-Jung Jo, Seung-Eun Lee, Min-Suk Yang, Sae-Hoon Kim, Hye-Kyung Park, Yong Eun Kwon, Tae-Bum Kim, Sang-Heon Kim, Heung-Woo Park, Yoon-Seok Chang, Byung-Jae Lee, Young-Koo Jee, Byoung Whui Choi, Claus Bachert, Sang-Heon Cho
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