Association of parental chronic pain with chronic pain in the adolescent and young adult: family linkage data from the HUNT Study.
ABSTRACT To examine a possible association of parental chronic pain with chronic pain in the adolescent and young adult and to explore whether a relationship could be explained by socioeconomic and psychosocial factors or may be affected by differences in family structure.
Unselected, population-based, cross-sectional study.
Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway.
All inhabitants of Nord-Trøndelag County who were 13 years or older were invited to enroll in the study. In total, 8200 of 10 485 invitees (78.2%) participated in the investigation. Among 7913 participants in the target age group (age range, 13-18 years), 7373 (93.2%) completed the pain questions. The final study population consisted of 5370 adolescents or young adults for whom one or both parents participated in the adult survey.
The primary outcome measure was chronic nonspecific pain in adolescents and young adults, defined as pain in at least 1 location, unrelated to any known disease or injury, experienced at least once a week during the past 3 months. Chronic multisite pain was defined as chronic pain in at least 3 locations.
Maternal chronic pain was associated with chronic nonspecific pain and chronic multisite pain in adolescents and young adults (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8). Paternal chronic pain was associated with increased odds of pain in adolescents and young adults. The odds of chronic nonspecific pain and chronic multisite pain in adolescents and young adults increased when both parents reported pain. Adjustments for socioeconomic and psychosocial factors did not change the results, although differences in family structure did. Among offspring living primarily with their mothers, clear associations were observed between maternal pain and pain in adolescents and young adults, but no association was found with paternal pain.
Parental chronic pain is associated with chronic nonspecific pain and especially with chronic multisite pain in adolescents and young adults. Family structure influences the relationship, indicating that family pain models and shared environmental factors are important in the origin of chronic pain.
- SourceAvailable from: Jannike Kaasbøll[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate possible associations between parental chronic pain and smoking, alcohol, and drug use in adolescent offspring.Journal of Pain Research 01/2014; 7:483-94.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pain that recurs or persists is unfortunately a common experience for children. One of the unique considerations in pediatric chronic pain management is the bidirectional influences of children's pain experiences and parental and family factors. In this review we present a developmental perspective on understanding pediatric chronic pain and disability, highlighting factors relevant from infancy to adolescence, and family and parent influences. Preliminary evidence indicates that developmental processes are influenced and may also shape the pediatric pain experience. Parent emotions, behaviors, and health also play a role in children's pain experiences, where overly protective parent behaviors, increased distress, and history of chronic pain are important parent-level influences. Research on family-level influences has revealed that families of children with chronic pain have poorer family functioning (e.g., more conflict, less cohesion) than families of healthy children. Several important gaps exist in this research, such as in understanding basic developmental processes in children with chronic pain and how they influence children's perception of and responses to pain. Also, there is a lack of longitudinal data on family relationships and individual adjustment to allow for understanding of whether changes occur in parenting over the course of the child's chronic pain experience. Although parent interventions have been successfully incorporated into many cognitive-behavioral treatments for children with chronic pain conditions, little guidance exists for adapting intervention strategies to be developmentally appropriate. Additional research is needed to examine whether parent interventions are effective at different developmental stages and the best way to incorporate developmental goals into treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).American Psychologist 01/2014; 69(2):142-52. · 6.87 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the association between parental chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and occurrence of CMP in the adult offspring. The main objective of this study was to assess the parent-offspring association of CMP, and also to examine possible modifying effects of age and sex.BMC Public Health 08/2014; 14(1):797. · 2.32 Impact Factor