To examine a possible association of parental chronic pain with chronic pain in the adolescent and young adult and to explore whether a relationship could be explained by socioeconomic and psychosocial factors or may be affected by differences in family structure.
Unselected, population-based, cross-sectional study.
Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway.
All inhabitants of Nord-Trøndelag County who were 13 years or older were invited to enroll in the study. In total, 8200 of 10 485 invitees (78.2%) participated in the investigation. Among 7913 participants in the target age group (age range, 13-18 years), 7373 (93.2%) completed the pain questions. The final study population consisted of 5370 adolescents or young adults for whom one or both parents participated in the adult survey.
The primary outcome measure was chronic nonspecific pain in adolescents and young adults, defined as pain in at least 1 location, unrelated to any known disease or injury, experienced at least once a week during the past 3 months. Chronic multisite pain was defined as chronic pain in at least 3 locations.
Maternal chronic pain was associated with chronic nonspecific pain and chronic multisite pain in adolescents and young adults (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8). Paternal chronic pain was associated with increased odds of pain in adolescents and young adults. The odds of chronic nonspecific pain and chronic multisite pain in adolescents and young adults increased when both parents reported pain. Adjustments for socioeconomic and psychosocial factors did not change the results, although differences in family structure did. Among offspring living primarily with their mothers, clear associations were observed between maternal pain and pain in adolescents and young adults, but no association was found with paternal pain.
Parental chronic pain is associated with chronic nonspecific pain and especially with chronic multisite pain in adolescents and young adults. Family structure influences the relationship, indicating that family pain models and shared environmental factors are important in the origin of chronic pain.
"The finding by Schwartz and Parisi (2013) that adolescents with cancer have more health-related goals than their healthy peers supports this explanation. An additional explanation could arise from the finding that the majority of the participants had a parent with musculoskeletal pain, consistent with previous research (Stommen et al., 2012; Hoftun et al., 2013). Since health is probably an important issue in these families, it is reasonable that these children might mention health as an important future goal. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Chronic non-specific musculoskeletal pain is a common problem among adolescents. This study investigates the importance of future goals and goal frustration for adolescents and young adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to healthy adolescents. It also explores the impact that pain intensity, pain catastrophizing and depressive symptoms have on goal frustration for adolescents with chronic pain.Methods
Using a cross-sectional design, we compared the importance and frustration of future goals for 42 adolescents and young adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain (41 women, 1 man) to those of 42 adolescents without pain (35 women, 7 men). For the adolescents with chronic pain, we also examined levels of pain intensity, pain catastrophizing and depressive symptoms to assess their ability to explain goal frustration levels. Statistics included t-tests, Mann–Whitney test and multivariate regression analysis.ResultsWe found no differences in the importance of future goals, except for goals related to health, which were more important for adolescents with chronic pain (p = 0.03). Furthermore, adolescents with chronic pain perceived higher levels of goal frustration in all domains, except that related to school (p = 0.16). Depression explained goal frustration related to personal values (p = 0.02), social acceptance (p < 0.01), self-acceptance (p < 0.01) and health (p < 0.01).Conclusions
Dealing with chronic pain in adolescence and early adulthood does not seem to change future goals, but is associated with perceiving barriers to achieving them. The level of depressive symptoms seems to influence this relationship. Some caution is required in generalizing the results due to the relatively low number of male participants.
European journal of pain (London, England) 08/2015; DOI:10.1002/ejp.762 · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hintergrund
Schmerzen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen sind ein häufiges Symptom. Je nach ihrer Dauer wird zwischen akuten (< 3 Monate) und chronischen (> 3 Monate) Schmerzen unterschieden. Zum Verständnis von Schmerzen – seien sie akut oder chronisch – ist eine multidimensionale Sichtweise notwendig, die biologische, psychologische und soziale Faktoren integriert. Diese 3 Dimensionen sind bei der Schmerzdiagnostik und -therapie zu beachten. Jedoch unterscheiden sich sowohl die Diagnostik als auch die Therapie bei akuten und chronischen Schmerzen deutlich.
Akutschmerz geht meist auf eine Gewebeschädigung zurück, die identifiziert werden muss, um sie möglicherweise ursächlich zu therapieren. Das wichtigste Element der Akutschmerztherapie sind Analgetika. Psychologische Strategien werden unterstützend eingesetzt.
Ihnen liegt häufig keine eindeutige körperliche Ursache zugrunde. Eine übertriebene Suche nach der einen Ursache kann zu einer weiteren, sog. iatrogenen Chronifizierung beitragen. Je länger der Schmerz besteht, desto größer ist die Bedeutung psychologischer und sozialer Interventionen. Biologische Komponenten chronischer Schmerzen sollten nur medikamentös behandelt werden, wenn sie nozizeptive Reize verursachen oder eine ursachenorientierte Therapie zu einer raschen Schmerzreduktion führt.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Back pain episodes are traditionally regarded as individual events, but this model is currently being challenged in favour of treating back pain as a long-term or lifelong condition. Back pain can be present throughout life, from childhood to older age, and evidence is mounting that pain experience is maintained over long periods: for example, people with pain continue to have it on and off for years, and people without pain do not suddenly develop long-term pain. A number of factors predict back pain presence in epidemiological studies, and these are often present, and predictive, at different life stages. There are also factors present at particular life stages, such as childhood or adolescence, which predict back pain in adulthood. However, there are little published data on long-term pain patterns or predictors over the life course. Such studies could improve our understanding of the development and fluctuations in back pain, and therefore influence treatment approaches.
Best practice & research. Clinical rheumatology 10/2013; 27(5):591-600. DOI:10.1016/j.berh.2013.09.007 · 2.60 Impact Factor
Sabra L. Katz-Wise, Bethany Everett, Emily A. Scherer, Holly Gooding, Carly E. Milliren, S. Bryn Austin
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