The Estimated Direct Medical Cost of Selected Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States, 2008
ABSTRACT Millions of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur in the United States each year, resulting in substantial medical costs to the nation. Previous estimates of the total direct cost of STIs are quite dated. We present updated direct medical cost estimates of STIs in the United States.
We assembled recent (i.e., 2002-2011) cost estimates to determine the lifetime cost per case of 8 major STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus, genital herpes simplex virus type 2, trichomoniasis and syphilis). The total direct cost for each STI was computed as the product of the number of new or newly diagnosed cases in 2008 and the estimated discounted lifetime cost per case. All costs were adjusted to 2010 US dollars.
Results indicated that the total lifetime direct medical cost of the 19.7 million cases of STIs that occurred among persons of all ages in 2008 in the United States was $15.6 (range, $11.0-$20.6) billion. Total costs were as follows: chlamydia ($516.7 [$258.3-$775.0] million), gonorrhea ($162.1 [$81.1-$243.2] million), hepatitis B virus ($50.7 [$41.3-$55.6] million), HIV ($12.6 [$9.5-$15.7] billion), human papillomavirus ($1.7 [$0.8-$2.9] billion), herpes simplex virus type 2 ($540.7 [$270.3-$811.0] million), syphilis ($39.3 [$19.6-$58.9] million), and trichomoniasis ($24.0 [$12.0-$36.0] million). Costs associated with HIV infection accounted for more than 81% of the total cost. Among the nonviral STIs, chlamydia was the most costly infection.
Sexually transmitted infections continue to impose a substantial cost burden on the payers of medical care in the United States. The burden of STIs would be even greater in the absence of STI prevention and control efforts.
- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sexually transmitted diseases, a source of widespread morbidity and sometimes mortality, are caused by a diverse group of infections with a common route of transmission. Existing vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus 16, 18, 6 and 11 are highly efficacious and cost effective. In reviewing the potential role for other vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) a series of questions needs to be addressed about the burden of disease, the potential characteristics of a new vaccine, and the impact of other interventions. These questions can be viewed in the light of the population dynamics of sexually transmitted infections as a group and how a vaccine can impact these dynamics. Mathematical models show the potential for substantial impact, especially if vaccines are widely used. To better make the case for sexually transmitted infection vaccines we need better data and analyses of the burden of disease, especially severe disease. However, cost effectiveness analyses using a wide range of assumptions show that STI vaccines would be cost effective and their development a worthwhile investment.Vaccine 03/2014; 32(14):1536–1542. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.11.007 · 3.49 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects 530million people, is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease, and increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. Although several candidate vaccines have been promising in animal models, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines have not been effective in clinical trials thus far. Negative results from the most recent prophylactic glycoprotein D2 subunit vaccine trial suggest that we must reevaluate our approach to HSV-2 vaccine development. We discuss HSV-2 pathogenesis, immunity, and vaccine efforts to date, as well as the current pipeline of candidate vaccines and design of trials to evaluate new vaccine constructs.Vaccine 09/2013; 32(14). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.08.066 · 3.49 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Private sector utilization and cost information on testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States is limited. We used current procedural terminology codes for tests for HIV, human papillomavirus (HPV), genital herpes simplex virus type 2, hepatitis B virus, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis. We extracted outpatient claims for persons aged 15 to 24 years in 2008 from the MarketScan database. Utilization was measured as the number of claims per 100,000 enrollees for tests specific to a given infection. We estimated claims rates and average costs by sex, compared these with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) fees, and estimated the overall total cost of STI testing. The claims rate for HPV was higher than for any other STI (P < 0.001) at 18,085/100,000, whereas that for trichomoniasis was lower than all other STIs (P < 0.001) at 517/100,000. Claims rates for females were higher than for males (P < 0.001) for all STIs. Average costs were as follows: $24 (HIV), $34 (HPV), $29 (hepatitis B virus), $25 (herpes simplex virus type 2), $43 (chlamydia), $42 (gonorrhea), $28 (trichomoniasis), and $24 (syphilis). Costs exceeded CMS fees for 67 of 78 current procedural terminologies by an average of 40%. The estimated total cost for all STIs was $403.1 million for the privately insured population aged 15 to 24 years. We found that the utilization rates and many test costs varied by sex. Private insurers typically paid more than the CMS fee schedule for testing.Sexually transmitted diseases 05/2013; 40(5):354-61. DOI:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318285c58f · 2.75 Impact Factor