The Estimated Direct Medical Cost of Selected Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States, 2008
From the Divisions of *STD Prevention, †Viral Hepatitis, and ‡HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. Sexually transmitted diseases
(Impact Factor: 2.84).
03/2013; 40(3):197-201. DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318285c6d2
Millions of cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur in the United States each year, resulting in substantial medical costs to the nation. Previous estimates of the total direct cost of STIs are quite dated. We present updated direct medical cost estimates of STIs in the United States.
We assembled recent (i.e., 2002-2011) cost estimates to determine the lifetime cost per case of 8 major STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus, genital herpes simplex virus type 2, trichomoniasis and syphilis). The total direct cost for each STI was computed as the product of the number of new or newly diagnosed cases in 2008 and the estimated discounted lifetime cost per case. All costs were adjusted to 2010 US dollars.
Results indicated that the total lifetime direct medical cost of the 19.7 million cases of STIs that occurred among persons of all ages in 2008 in the United States was $15.6 (range, $11.0-$20.6) billion. Total costs were as follows: chlamydia ($516.7 [$258.3-$775.0] million), gonorrhea ($162.1 [$81.1-$243.2] million), hepatitis B virus ($50.7 [$41.3-$55.6] million), HIV ($12.6 [$9.5-$15.7] billion), human papillomavirus ($1.7 [$0.8-$2.9] billion), herpes simplex virus type 2 ($540.7 [$270.3-$811.0] million), syphilis ($39.3 [$19.6-$58.9] million), and trichomoniasis ($24.0 [$12.0-$36.0] million). Costs associated with HIV infection accounted for more than 81% of the total cost. Among the nonviral STIs, chlamydia was the most costly infection.
Sexually transmitted infections continue to impose a substantial cost burden on the payers of medical care in the United States. The burden of STIs would be even greater in the absence of STI prevention and control efforts.
Available from: Kimberly A Workowski
- "The cost and healthcare burden associated with trichomoniasis are substantial, and the direct medical costs are conservatively estimated to be $24 million per year in the United States.44 The average lifetime cost per case has been estimated at $22, not including any costs associated with complications or associated conditions. "
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ABSTRACT: Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common human parasitic infections in the United States, as well as the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection. However, it has long received much less consideration than other parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. Much of this inattention can be attributed to a poor understanding of the public health impact of trichomoniasis. Increasing recognition of the sequelae of infection, including increased risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and adverse outcomes of pregnancy, has led to increased interest in T. vaginalis. Recent innovations include development of diagnostic tests that could improve detection of the parasite. A number of important questions, such as the epidemiology among men and women, the true public health burden of symptomatic and asymptomatic T. vaginalis infections, and whether current treatments will be adequate to reduce the substantial health disparities and costs associated with trichomoniasis, need consideration to remedy neglect of this important disease.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 05/2014; 90(5):800-4. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0723 · 2.70 Impact Factor
Available from: Robert D Kirkcaldy
- "Each year, the estimated 820,000 incident cases of gonorrhea in the United States result in lifetime direct medical costs of $162 million (1,2). Although substantial, the incidence of gonorrhea in the United States has decreased since the 1970s in part because of sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs (3–5). "
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ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial drug resistance can hinder gonorrhea prevention and control efforts. In this study, we analyzed historical ciprofloxacin resistance data and gonorrhea incidence data to examine the possible effect of antimicrobial drug resistance on gonorrhea incidence at the population level. We analyzed data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project and city-level gonorrhea incidence rates from surveillance data for 17 cities during 1991-2006. We found a strong positive association between ciprofloxacin resistance and gonorrhea incidence rates at the city level during this period. Their association was consistent with predictions of mathematical models in which resistance to treatment can increase gonorrhea incidence rates through factors such as increased duration of infection. These findings highlight the possibility of future increases in gonorrhea incidence caused by emerging cephalosporin resistance.
Emerging Infectious Diseases 04/2014; 20(4):612-9. DOI:10.3201/eid2004.131288 · 6.75 Impact Factor
Available from: sciencedirect.com
- "For example, HPV vaccination was launched with a price of around $360 per course in the US, but is now available through the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) in low income countries for $4.50 . The opportunity for tiered pricing is more apparent for the viral STIs, where a cure is not possible through current treatment, treatment of disease causes a burden on the system  and there is a psychosocial burden  "
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ABSTRACT: Sexually transmitted diseases, a source of widespread morbidity and sometimes mortality, are caused by a diverse group of infections with a common route of transmission. Existing vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus 16, 18, 6 and 11 are highly efficacious and cost effective. In reviewing the potential role for other vaccines against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) a series of questions needs to be addressed about the burden of disease, the potential characteristics of a new vaccine, and the impact of other interventions. These questions can be viewed in the light of the population dynamics of sexually transmitted infections as a group and how a vaccine can impact these dynamics. Mathematical models show the potential for substantial impact, especially if vaccines are widely used. To better make the case for sexually transmitted infection vaccines we need better data and analyses of the burden of disease, especially severe disease. However, cost effectiveness analyses using a wide range of assumptions show that STI vaccines would be cost effective and their development a worthwhile investment.
Vaccine 03/2014; 32(14):1536–1542. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.11.007 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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