Performance of a Novel High Throughput Method for the Determination of VX in Drinking Water Samples
ABSTRACT VX (O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate) is a highly toxic organophosphorus nerve agent, and even low levels of contamination in water can be harmful. Measurement of low concentrations of VX in aqueous matrixes is possible using an immunomagnetic scavenging technique and detection using liquid chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry. Performance of the method was characterized in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-grade water preserved with sodium omadine, an antimicrobial agent, and sodium thiosulfate, a dechlorinating agent, over eight analytical batches with quality control samples analyzed over 10 days. The minimum reportable level was 25 ng/L with a linear dynamic range up to 4.0 μg/L. The mean accuracies for two quality control samples containing VX at concentrations of 0.250 and 2.00 μg/L were 102 ± 3% and 103 ± 6%, respectively. The stability of VX was determined in five tap water samples representing a range of water quality parameters and disinfection practices over a 91 day period. In preserved tap water samples, VX recovery was between 81 and 92% of the fortified amount, 2.0 μg/L, when analyzed immediately after preparation. Recovery of VX decreased to between 31 and 45% of the fortified amount after 91 days, indicating hydrolysis of VX. However, the preservatives minimized the hydrolysis rate to close to the theoretical limit. The ability to detect low concentrations of VX in preserved tap water 91 days after spiking suggests applicability of this method for determining water contamination with VX and utility during environmental remediation.
SourceAvailable from: Borja Díaz de Greñu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluo-rescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2014; 136(11). DOI:10.1021/ja500710m · 11.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity. However, the same techniques discussed could also have application to catastrophes resulting from other incidents, such as natural disasters or industrial accidents. Further, the high sample throughput enabled by the techniques discussed could be employed for conventional environmental studies and compliance monitoring, potentially decreasing costs and/or increasing the quantity of data available to decision-makers.Environment international 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.01.021 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical technique capable of accessing a large volume of spatially resolved, chemical data from two-dimensional samples. Probing the entire surface of a sample simultaneously requires a detector with high spatial and temporal resolutions, and the ability to observe events relating to different mass-to-charge ratios. METHODS: A commercially available time-of-flight mass spectrometer, designed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) analysis, was combined with the novel pixel imaging mass spectrometry (PImMS) camera in order to perform multi-mass, microscope-mode imaging experiments. A number of minor modifications were made to the spectrometer hardware and ion optics so that spatial imaging was achieved for a number of small molecules. RESULTS: It was shown that a peak width of Delta m(50%) < 1 m/z unit across the range 200 <= m/z <= 800 can be obtained while also achieving an optimum spatial resolution of 25 mu m. It was further shown that these data were obtained simultaneously for all analytes present without the need to scan the experimental parameters. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates the capability of multi-mass, microscope-mode imaging to reduce the acquisition time of spatially distributed analytes such as multi-arrays or biological tissue sections. It also shows that such an instrument can be commissioned by effecting relatively minor modifications to a conventional commercial machine. Copyright (C) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 08/2014; 28(15):1649-57. DOI:10.1002/rcm.6940 · 2.64 Impact Factor