Silibinin Inhibits Established Prostate Tumor Growth, Progression, Invasion, and Metastasis and Suppresses Tumor Angiogenesis and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate Model Mice
ABSTRACT The chronic nature of prostate cancer growth and progression leading to metastasis provides a large window for intervention. Herein, for the first time, we investigated the effect and associated mechanisms of silibinin phosphatidylcholine (silybin-phytosome) on established prostate tumors in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model.
Twenty-week-old TRAMP male mice having palpable prostate tumor were fed with control or 0.5% and 1%, w/w, silybin-phytosome diets for 11 weeks and then sacrificed.
Dietary silibinin inhibited the growth of prostate tumors (up to 60%, P < 0.001) and suppressed tumor progression from prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia to differentiated adenocarcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, with a complete absence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma at higher doses. It also inhibited the incidence of tumor invasion of seminal vesicle (up to 81%, P < 0.001) with complete absence of distant metastasis. Silibinin moderately inhibited tumor cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, but strongly suppressed tumor microvessel density (up to 60%, P < 0.001), vascular endothelial growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 expression. Antibody array analysis of plasma showed a decrease in the circulatory levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Decreased levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), snail-1, and vimentin, and an increased level of E-cadherin were also observed, indicating the anti-epithelial-mesenchymal transition effect of silibinin in tumors.
Overall, silibinin treatment of TRAMP mice bearing prostate tumor inhibited tumor growth, progression, local invasion, and distant metastasis involving suppression of tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These findings would have greater relevance for the ongoing phase II clinical trial with silibinin-phytosome in prostate cancer patients.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Prof. Girish Sharma, May 30, 2015
Click to see the full-text of:
Article: Silibinin Inhibits Established Prostate Tumor Growth, Progression, Invasion, and Metastasis and Suppresses Tumor Angiogenesis and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate Model Mice
SourceAvailable from: Amr Amin
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common cancer in developed countries. A large fraction of cases are linked to chronic intestinal inflammation, with concomitant increased TNF-α release and elevated Snail1/Snail2 levels. These transcription factors in turn suppress vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, resulting in loss of responsiveness to the protective anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). Experimental and epidemiologic evidence support the use of natural products to target CRC. Here we show that the flavonolignan silibinin reverses the TNF-α- induced upregulation of Snail1 and Snail2 in the 1,25D-resistant human colon carcinoma cells HT-29. These silibinin effects are accompanied by an increase in VDR levels; Snail1 overexpression reverses these silibinin effects. Silibinin also restores promoter activity from a vitamin D-response element (VDRE) reporter construct. While 1,25D had no significant effect on HT-29 and SW480-R cell proliferation and migration, co-treatment with silibinin restored 1,25D responsiveness. In addition, co-treatment with silibinin plus 1,25D decreased proliferation and migration at doses where silibinin alone had no effect. These findings demonstrate that this combination may present a novel approach to target CRC in conditions of chronic colonic inflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Cancer letters 04/2015; 362(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2015.03.042 · 5.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cancer is a key health issue across the world, causing substantial patient morbidity and mortality. Patient prognosis is tightly linked with metastatic dissemination of the disease to distant sites, with metastatic diseases accounting for a vast percentage of cancer patient mortality. While advances in this area have been made, the process of cancer metastasis and the factors governing cancer spread and establishment at secondary locations is still poorly understood. The current article summarizes recent progress in this area of research, both in the understanding of the underlying biological processes and in the therapeutic strategies for the management of metastasis. This review lists the disruption of E-cadherin and tight junctions, key signaling pathways, including urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene (PI3K/AKT), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), β-catenin/zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB-1) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), together with inactivation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and suppression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity as key targets and the use of phytochemicals, or natural products, such as those from Agaricus blazei, Albatrellus confluens, Cordyceps militaris, Ganoderma lucidum, Poria cocos and Silybum marianum, together with diet derived fatty acids gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and inhibitory compounds as useful approaches to target tissue invasion and metastasis as well as other hallmark areas of cancer. Together, these strategies could represent new, inexpensive, low toxicity strategies to aid in the management of cancer metastasis as well as having holistic effects against other cancer hallmarks. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Seminars in Cancer Biology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.semcancer.2015.03.008 · 9.14 Impact Factor