Effect of cranberry extracts on lipid profiles in subjects with Type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT To examine the effect of cranberry ingestion on lipid profiles in Type 2 diabetic patients taking oral glucose-lowering drugs.
Thirty Type 2 diabetic subjects (16 males and 14 females; mean age 65 +/- 1 years) who were taking oral glucose-lowering medication regularly were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Changes in lipid profiles, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), glycaemic control, components of the metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein (CRP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were assessed after cranberry or placebo treatment for 12 weeks.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased significantly in the cranberry group (from 3.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/l, P = 0.005) and the decrease was significantly greater than that in the placebo group (-0.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, P < 0.001). Total cholesterol and total : high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio also decreased significantly (P = 0.020 and 0.044, respectively) in the cranberry group and the reductions were significantly different from those in the placebo group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.032, respectively). However, ox-LDL levels did not change significantly in response to cranberry consumption. Neither fasting glucose nor glycated haemoglobin improved in either group. Changes in components of the metabolic syndrome, UAE and CRP were not significantly different between groups.
Cranberry supplements are effective in reducing atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles, including LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels, as well as total : HDL cholesterol ratio, and have a neutral effect on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetic subjects taking oral glucose-lowering agents.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Studies have suggested that oxidative stress is a common pathway of different leading mechanisms to diabetes complications. Oxidative stress play a crucial role in atherogenesis and cause oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Evidence has been shown that oxidized LDL in diabetic patients is higher than nondiabetic individuals. Regarding to known role of oxidative stress in developing of micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes and recent evidences about importance of IL-6 in initiating of inflammatory processes in atherosclerotic plaques formation and reports that shown the effects of Ox-LDL upon IL-6 release, in this study evaluation of serum levels of IL-6 and correlation of these two agents in diabetic patients in comparison with healthy persons was performed. Methods: This stratified cross-sectional study was conducted in diabetic clinic of Imam khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2009-2010, recruiting 40 type2 diabetic (T2DM) patients as cases and 40 healthy subjects as controls. FBS, lipid profile, HbA1c, oxidized-LDL and IL-6 levels were measured for both patients and controls after 12 hours fasting state. Results: The mean of Ox-LDL/LDL ratio in T2DM group (0.65±0.14) were significantly higher than control group (0.5±0.15) (p<0.001). The mean level of IL-6 in T2DM group were 2.6±1.8 pg/ml that was higher than control group (1.9± 0.8pg/ml) (p=0.05). BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures revealed significant correlation with IL-6 level in diabetic group. There was no correlation between diabetes duration and IL-6 level. Conclusion: We concluded that diabetes, as an independent factor, is responsible for increased IL-6 in T2DM.
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ABSTRACT: To compare freeze-dried strawberry (FDS) beverage and strawberry-flavored drink effects on lipid profile and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 36 subjects with T2D (23 females; mean ± SE age: 51.57 ± 10 years) were randomly divided into two groups. Participants consumed two cups of either pure FDS beverage (each cup containing 25 g freeze-dried strawberry powder equivalent to one serving of fresh strawberries; intervention group) or an iso-caloric drink with strawberry flavoring (similar to the FDS drink in fiber content and color; placebo group) daily for 6 wk. Anthropometric measurements, 3 d, 24 h dietary recall, and fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at weeks 6 intervention. After lying down and relaxing for approximately 10 min, each participant's blood pressure was recorded in triplicate with 5 min intervals; recordings were made at baseline and the trial end-point. Each participant's lipid profile was assessed before and after intervention. Assessment at the weeks 6 intervention showed a significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio in the intervention group (179.01 ± 31.86 to 165.9 ± 32.4 mg/L; P = 0.00 and 3.9 ± 0.88 to 3.6 ± 0.082 mg/L; P = 0.00 respectively), but the change was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.07, P = 0.29 respectively). Systolic blood pressure levels were significantly reduced from baseline in both the FDS and placebo drink groups (129.95 ± 14.9 to 114.3 ± 27.5 mmHg; P = 0.02 and 127.6 ± 15.6 to 122.9 ± 14.47 mmHg; P = 0.00 respectively), but the reduction was not significantly different between the two groups. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced post-intervention in the FDS drink group compared to placebo group (78.7 ± 7.2 vs 84.4 ± 5.8; P = 0.01), the reduction was also significant within the FDS drink group (84.2 ± 8.03 to 78.7 ± 7.2; P = 0.00). Triglycerides, HDL-C concentrations and anthropometric indices showed no significant differences between or within groups. Short-term FDS supplementation improved selected cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with T2D. Long-term effects on other metabolic biomarkers need to be investigated in future trials.