Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Recurrent Depression

Mood Disorders Centre, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, UK.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.85). 01/2009; 76(6):966-78. DOI: 10.1037/a0013786
Source: PubMed


For people at risk of depressive relapse, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has an additive benefit to usual care (H. F. Coelho, P. H. Canter, & E. Ernst, 2007). This study asked if, among patients with recurrent depression who are treated with antidepressant medication (ADM), MBCT is comparable to treatment with maintenance ADM (m-ADM) in (a) depressive relapse prevention, (b) key secondary outcomes, and (c) cost effectiveness. The study design was a parallel 2-group randomized controlled trial comparing those on m-ADM (N = 62) with those receiving MBCT plus support to taper/discontinue antidepressants (N = 61). Relapse/recurrence rates over 15-month follow-ups in MBCT were 47%, compared with 60% in the m-ADM group (hazard ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval: 0.39 to 1.04). MBCT was more effective than m-ADM in reducing residual depressive symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity and in improving quality of life in the physical and psychological domains. There was no difference in average annual cost between the 2 groups. Rates of ADM usage in the MBCT group was significantly reduced, and 46 patients (75%) completely discontinued their ADM. For patients treated with ADM, MBCT may provide an alternative approach for relapse prevention.

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    • "Fourth, the results in the TAU condition suggest that recruitment of patients might have affected the findings. Hence, future research should use optimized recruitment strategies (e.g., searching in computerized practice databases in primary care settings to identify patients; see Kuyken et al., 2008) to improve generalizability of the results. Fifth, it cannot be ruled out that the greater effects of CBASP were attributable to a higher dose of treatment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has recently been proposed as a treatment option for chronic depression. The cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP) is the only approach specifically developed to date for the treatment of chronically depressed patients. The efficacy of MBCT plus treatment-as-usual (TAU), and CBASP (group version) plus TAU, was compared to TAU alone in a prospective, bicenter, randomized controlled trial. Method: One hundred and six patients with a current DSM-IV defined major depressive episode and persistent depressive symptoms for more than 2 years were randomized to TAU only (N = 35), or to TAU with additional 8-week group therapy of either 8 sessions of MBCT (n = 36) or CBASP (n = 35). The primary outcome measure was the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (24-item HAM-D, Hamilton, 1967) at the end of treatment. Secondary outcome measures were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and measures of social functioning and quality of life. Results: In the overall sample as well as at 1 treatment site, MBCT was no more effective than TAU in reducing depressive symptoms, although it was significantly superior to TAU at the other treatment site. CBASP was significantly more effective than TAU in reducing depressive symptoms in the overall sample and at both treatment sites. Both treatments had only small to medium effects on social functioning and quality of life. Conclusions: Further studies should inquire whether the superiority of CBASP in this trial might be explained by the more active, problem-solving, and interpersonal focus of CBASP. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 09/2015; 83(5). DOI:10.1037/ccp0000042 · 4.85 Impact Factor
    • "( Bockting et al . , 2008 ; Kuyken et al . , 2008 ; Olfson et al . , 2006"
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    ABSTRACT: Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and maintenance antidepressant medication (mADM) both reduce the risk of relapse in recurrent depression, but their combination has not been studied. Our aim was to investigate whether the addition of MBCT to mADM is a more effective prevention strategy than mADM alone. This study is one of two multicenter randomised trials comparing the combination of MBCT and mADM to either intervention on its own. In the current trial, recurrently depressed patients in remission who had been using mADM for 6 months or longer (n=68), were randomly allocated to either MBCT+mADM (n=33) or mADM alone (n=35). Primary outcome was depressive relapse/recurrence within 15 months. Key secondary outcomes were time to relapse/recurrence and depression severity. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. There were no significant differences between the groups on any of the outcome measures. The current study included patients who had recovered from depression with mADM and who preferred the certainty of continuing medication to the possibility of participating in MBCT. Lower expectations of mindfulness in the current trial, compared with the parallel trial, may have caused selection bias. In addition, recruitment was hampered by the increasing availability of MBCT in the Netherlands, and even about a quarter of participants included in the trial who were allocated to the control group chose to get MBCT elsewhere. For this selection of recurrently depressed patients in remission and using mADM for 6 months or longer, MBCT did not further reduce their risk for relapse/recurrence or their (residual) depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 08/2015; 187:54-61. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.023 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "It's believed that MBCT's putative mechanisms of action include enhanced mindfulness (Kuyken et al. 2010b), improved emotional regulation (Arch and Craske 2006), increased self-compassion and acceptance (Kuyken et al. 2008), reduced rumination (Nolen-Hoeksema and Morrow 1991), and the expanded ability to " decenter " from one's automatic thoughts and dysphoric feelings (Teasdale, et al. 2000). While defined in various ways, mindfulness primarily involves the intentional attention to one's inner or outer environment in the present moment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability in the developed world, yet broadly effective treatments remain elusive. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) monotherapy, compared to sertraline monotherapy, for patients with acute MDD. This open-label, nonrandomized controlled trial examined a MBCT cohort (N = 23) recruited to match the gender, age, and depression severity of a depressed control group (N = 20) that completed 8 weeks of monotherapy with the antidepressant sertraline. The 17-item clinician-rated Hamilton Depression Severity Rating Scale (HAMD-17) was the primary outcome measure of depression to assess overall change after 8 weeks and rates of response and remission. The 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report (QIDS-SR16) was the secondary outcome measure to further assess depression severity. Both cohorts were demographically similar and showed significant improvement in depression ratings. No difference was found in the degree of change in HAMD-17 scores (t(34) = 1.42, p = 0.165) between groups. Secondary analysis showed statistically significant differences in mean scores of the QIDS-SR16 (t(32) = 4.39, p
    Mindfulness 06/2015; 6(3):475-482. DOI:10.1007/s12671-014-0280-8
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