This investigation examined how personal, environmental and substance use factors predicted psychosocial functioning for youth with alcohol and drug problems. Four hundred twenty-four adolescents (M = 15.9, SD = 1.3) completed comprehensive assessments, including personal characteristics (e.g., Axis I diagnosis, motivation, self-esteem), environmental factors (e.g., family history, social supports) and substance use, at study intake and throughout the year following inpatient treatment. Treatment outcomes were assessed by measures of academic functioning, family relations, social functioning as well as health status and mental health treatment at one year. Aspects of the proposed model significantly predicted all treatment outcome domains, except family functioning, in the year following treatment. Psychosocial functioning at one year was predicted by age, gender, SES, comorbid psychopathology, family influence and nonusing social supports prior to treatment and relapse status after treatment. The utility of variables associated with substance use treatment outcomes in predicting psychosocial outcomes is considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relation between social anxiety and alcohol consumption suggests aspects of both risk and protection, but most research has focused on late adolescents and emerging adults.
We investigated the synergistic impact of social anxiety, a need for affiliation with others, and perceived peer alcohol use on drinking in a sample of more than 1,500 early adolescents from southern California (48% girls). Via school-wide surveys, middle school students completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised, a modified version of the Interpersonal Orientation Scale, as well as measures of perceived peer drinking and self-reported lifetime and current drinking.
For socially anxious youths, high levels of perceived peer use in conjunction with high levels of affiliation need was associated with greater alcohol use on average and more frequent episodic drinking. Specific to heavy episodic drinking, the interaction of social anxiety and perceived peer drinking seemed to affect girls and boys differentially. Sex differences emerged for the moderation of social anxiety's influence on drinking initiation by perceived peer influence.
These findings suggest that alcohol-related risks associated with social anxiety might be gender specific and more important in earlier stages of alcohol use than previously believed.
Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 01/2010; 72(1):61-9. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2011.72.61 · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Folic acid was separated under aqueous normal phase (ANP) conditions with Diamond Hydride™ columns and quantitated in fortified cereal and juice matrices using high performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet absorption (HPLC-UV) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based methodologies. The folic acid was well-resolved from matrix components under the ANP conditions studied and allowed for the direct analyses of the fortified juices and cereals without the sample cleanup that is often required for other reported LC-based approaches. The calibration curve obtained from the LC-MS analyses demonstrated good linearity (R(2)=0.9997) in the studied concentration range of 0.05-0.5 mg/L. The spiked flour percent recovery was 90% with HPLC-UV and 91% with LC-MS. Spiked juice percent recovery was 102% with LC-MS. However, analyses of juices were unsatisfactory either in terms of recovery or sensitivity. Therefore, analyses of juices will either need to be performed by LC-MS or, if by HPLC-UV, will require sample cleanup. Three cereals and one juice were analyzed with the methods.
Journal of Chromatography A 09/2010; 1218(15):2121-6. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2010.09.025 · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this research was to describe the most common drinking situations for young adolescents (N = 1171; 46.6% girls), as well as determine predictors of their drinking in the seventh and eighth grades. Middle school students most frequently drank at parties with three to four teens, in their home or at a friend's home, and reported alcohol-related problems including conflicts with friends or parents, memory loss, nausea, and doing things they would not normally do. Differences emerged in predicting higher levels of drinking on the basis of sex, race, grade, positive alcohol expectancies, impulsivity, and peer drinking. These findings suggest both specific and general factors are implicated in drinking for middle school students. Contextual factors, including drinking alone, in public places, and at or near school, are characteristic of the most problematic alcohol involvement in middle school and may have utility in prevention and early intervention.
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