Determination of arsenic levels in lake water, sediment, and foodstuff from selected area of Sindh, Pakistan: estimation of daily dietary intake.
ABSTRACT The aim of present study was to develop a database of arsenic (As) in lake water, ground water, sediment, soil, vegetables, grain crops and fish to evaluate the potential human health risks posed by higher level of As, in south east part of Sindh, Pakistan during 2005-2007. The total concentration of As in various samples under study was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ETAAS). The reliability and accuracy of technique was checked by different certified reference materials. The concentration of As in lake and ground water samples exceeded the WHO guideline values. The concentration of As in lake sediment and agricultural soil samples ranged between 11.3-55.8 and 8.7-46.2 mg/kg while acid soluble As (acetic acid 0.11 mol/L) was observed in the range of 1.48-3.54 and 0.34-3.78 mg/kg, respectively. It was observed that the leafy vegetables (spinach, coriander and peppermint) contain higher As levels (0.90-1.20 mg/kg) as compared to ground vegetables (0.048-0.25) and grain crops (0.248-0.367 mg/kg) on dried weight basis. The estimated daily intake of total As in the diet was 9.7-12.2 microg/kg body weight/day.
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ABSTRACT: In the present study we determined As concentrations in healthy volunteers from three different age groups (children, adults and old age) residing in Lahore, Pakistan to gain insight into arsenic exposure to humans via drinking water. The results revealed that the concentrations of As were significantly (p< 0.05) different among different sites, while non significant trends were observed among different age classes. As concentrations in blood and nails samples showed a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation. The mean concentrations of As were higher in nails samples (1.43 µg/g) followed by blood samples (1.15 µg/L); urine samples (0.82 µg/l) and hair samples (0.74 µg/g) based on all sites. The antioxidants enzymes activities in blood samples showed a significant (p< 0.01) decrease with the increase in As concentrations. The result suggests that urgent action is needed to prevent further human exposure to As.Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 10/2014; 39(1). · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study aims at assessing arsenic (As) levels in outdoor dust and human exposure risks at different land use setting (i.e., rural, industrial, urban) from Punjab, Pakistan. The results showed higher As concentrations (mg/kg) in all the sample types (i.e., dust, hair and nail) collected from industrial sites (9.78, 2.36, 2.5) followed by urban (7.59, 0.38, 0.88) and rural sites (6.95, 0.52, 1.12), respectively. In the current study, we also carried out human risk assessment via contaminated dust exposure, which suggested that dust ingestion is the major route of As contamination for the associated population, followed by the inhalation and dermal contact, at all studied land use settings. Hazard Index (HI) calculated for non-carcinogenic health risks for adults showed higher values at industrial (0.65) and urban (0.53) sites, which reflected that dust exposure is the major contributing source of human arsenic burden and may pose several adverse health effects. Carcinogenic risk values showed that at industrial areas the risk of carcinogenesis to the associated population is mainly due to As contaminated dust exposure. Hair (60%) and nail samples (70%) collected from industrial land use were found above the WHO threshold limit of 1 mg/kg, suggested high risks for human health in the studied area. The results of the present study would be useful for assessing the human health risks due to arsenic contamination via dust exposure in different parts of country. &02/2015;
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ABSTRACT: This review is undertaken to address the possible role of arsenic and pesticides in the prevalence of diabetes in Pakistan and to highlight a resourceful targeted research in this area. A bibliographic search of scientific databases was conducted with key words of "epidemics of diabetes in Pakistan", "diabetes in Asia", "diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants", "diabetes mellitus and heavy metals", "diabetes mellitus and pesticides", "prevalence of pesticides in Pakistan", and "heavy metals contamination of drinking water, "vegetables and fruits in Pakistan". More than 200 articles were examined. Studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), pesticides and heavy metal contamination of drinking water, fruits and vegetables were included in the study. According to WHO 2011 report, about 12.9 million people are suffering from DM and the number is constantly increasing. Water pollution is a major public health threat in Pakistan. Most of the people in Pakistan are exposed to arsenic and pesticides either in drinking water or through vegetables, fruits, and other edible items with various concentrations above the WHO/FAO permissible limits. Being an agricultural country, a 1169% increase has been recorded with the use of different types of pesticides since last two decades, and almost similar rise in the burden of diabetes. There is a growing global concern of arsenic and pesticides exposure with the incidence of DM. Besides other factors, the environmental attributors in the incidence of DM in Pakistan have not been conclusively elucidated yet which in turn deserve a resourceful targeted research.Journal of diabetes and metabolic disorders. 12/2014; 13(1):117.