Determination of arsenic levels in lake water, sediment, and foodstuff from selected area of Sindh, Pakistan: estimation of daily dietary intake.
ABSTRACT The aim of present study was to develop a database of arsenic (As) in lake water, ground water, sediment, soil, vegetables, grain crops and fish to evaluate the potential human health risks posed by higher level of As, in south east part of Sindh, Pakistan during 2005-2007. The total concentration of As in various samples under study was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ETAAS). The reliability and accuracy of technique was checked by different certified reference materials. The concentration of As in lake and ground water samples exceeded the WHO guideline values. The concentration of As in lake sediment and agricultural soil samples ranged between 11.3-55.8 and 8.7-46.2 mg/kg while acid soluble As (acetic acid 0.11 mol/L) was observed in the range of 1.48-3.54 and 0.34-3.78 mg/kg, respectively. It was observed that the leafy vegetables (spinach, coriander and peppermint) contain higher As levels (0.90-1.20 mg/kg) as compared to ground vegetables (0.048-0.25) and grain crops (0.248-0.367 mg/kg) on dried weight basis. The estimated daily intake of total As in the diet was 9.7-12.2 microg/kg body weight/day.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of present study was to simultaneously estimate the arsenic (As) and fluoride (F(-)) concentrations in irrigated surface water, soil and grain crops of Nagarparkar, Pakistan during 2010-2012. The As and F(-) were analyzed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer and ion selective electrode, respectively. Total arsenic (AsT) and F(-) in irrigated surface water samples were found in the range of 360-683μgL(-1) and 18.5-35.4mgL(-1), respectively. While AsT and F(-) concentrations in agriculture soil samples were observed in the range of 110-266 and 125-566mgkg(-1), respectively. The water extractable As and F(-) were found 3-4% of total concentration of these in soils. The AsT concentration was higher in kidney been (KB) as compared to pearl millet (PM) and green gram (GG), whereas GG had higher F(-) levels as compared to other two grain crops (p<0.05). The KB samples grown in nine sites shows BCF of As in the range of 0.018-0.038. The GG has higher BCF of F(-) as compared to KB and PM (p<0.05) grown in all sites. The exposure dose and risk factor of As and F(-) were obtained by estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazardous index (HI). It was found that all understudy age groups were at the severe risk of arsenicosis and fluorosis, but the severity is higher in younger age group (7-15years) as compared to elder groups (p<0.05).Chemosphere 12/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel and mercury are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil and water, can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly, to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water and waste water), soil, sediments, particulate matter and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment and food chain. Moreover the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.BioMed Research International 07/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) smelter in Ruston, Washington, contaminated the south-central Puget Sound region with heavy metals, including arsenic and lead. Arsenic and lead distribution in surface sediments of 26 lakes is significantly correlated with atmospheric model predictions of contaminant deposition spatially, with concentrations reaching 208mg/kg As and 1375mg/kg Pb. The temporal distribution of these metals in sediment cores is consistent with the years of operation of the ASARCO smelter. In several lakes arsenic and lead levels are highest at the surface, suggesting ongoing inputs or redistribution of contaminants. Moreover, this study finds that arsenic is highly mobile in these urban lakes, with maximum dissolved arsenic concentrations proportional to surface sediment levels and reaching almost 90μg/L As. With 83% of the lakes in the deposition zone having surface sediments exceeding published "probable effects concentrations" for arsenic and lead, this study provides evidence for possible ongoing environmental health concerns.Science of The Total Environment 12/2013; 472C:530-537. · 3.26 Impact Factor