The aim of present study was to develop a database of arsenic (As) in lake water, ground water, sediment, soil, vegetables, grain crops and fish to evaluate the potential human health risks posed by higher level of As, in south east part of Sindh, Pakistan during 2005-2007. The total concentration of As in various samples under study was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ETAAS). The reliability and accuracy of technique was checked by different certified reference materials. The concentration of As in lake and ground water samples exceeded the WHO guideline values. The concentration of As in lake sediment and agricultural soil samples ranged between 11.3-55.8 and 8.7-46.2 mg/kg while acid soluble As (acetic acid 0.11 mol/L) was observed in the range of 1.48-3.54 and 0.34-3.78 mg/kg, respectively. It was observed that the leafy vegetables (spinach, coriander and peppermint) contain higher As levels (0.90-1.20 mg/kg) as compared to ground vegetables (0.048-0.25) and grain crops (0.248-0.367 mg/kg) on dried weight basis. The estimated daily intake of total As in the diet was 9.7-12.2 microg/kg body weight/day.
"Pakistan, geological conditions are considered as one of the prime source of As exposure into the environment (Farooqi et al., 2007; Kazi et al., 2009). Several studies have reported As contamination of ground and surface water, soils and plants (Silbergeld and Nachman, 2008; Arain et al., 2009; Baig et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2010). Moreover, sorbed As onto parent rock material can be distributed into wider areas of Pakistan through flood drifts and/or seepage of ground water (Farooqi et al., 2007). "
"The first detectable nephrotoxic effect of Cd is suggested to be an increased excretion of low molecular weight proteins and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG), an enzyme proposed as an indicator of renal proximal tubular damage (Bernard and Lauwerys 1990). For the general population, the main sources of Cd and As exposure are diet, contaminated water, crops and tobacco grown on contaminated soil (Arain et al. 2009; Kazi et al. 2009a). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combined exposure of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) causes more pronounced renal toxicity. The study aimed to evaluate the level of As and Cd in biological samples (blood and urine) of adults males, age ranged (30-50 years) exposed referent (ER) and exposed kidney patients (EKP), consumed contaminated drinking water of lake and smoking local cigarettes manufactured by tobacco plants grown on agricultural soil, irrigated with contaminated lake water. For comparative purpose age matched nonexoposed referent (NR) and nonexposed kidney patient (NKP), consumed municipal treaded water and smoking branded cigarette were also selected. The As and Cd levels in drinking water, biological samples, tobacco of branded and nonbranded cigarettes were analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The As and Cd concentrations in lake water were higher than the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization for drinking water. The As and Cd levels in local cigarette tobacco were found to be 3- to 4-folds higher than branded cigarettes. The biochemical parameters especially urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG) of ER, EKP, ER, and EKP subjects were studied as a biomarkers of renal dysfunction. The NAG values were found to be higher in EKP as compared to NKP (p < 0.01). The linear regressions showed higher correlations between As and Cd concentrations in water versus blood and urine samples of EKP (r = 0.71-0.78 and 0.68-0.72), as compared to NKP (p < 0.05).
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1007/s11356-014-3339-0 · 2.83 Impact Factor
"The surface water samples were diluted up to 50 times with deionized water . The diluted samples were filtered and kept at 4 °C till further analysis as reported in previous works ( Arain et al . , 2009 ; Baig et al . , 2010a , b"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of present study was to simultaneously estimate the arsenic (As) and fluoride (F(-)) concentrations in irrigated surface water, soil and grain crops of Nagarparkar, Pakistan during 2010-2012. The As and F(-) were analyzed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer and ion selective electrode, respectively. Total arsenic (AsT) and F(-) in irrigated surface water samples were found in the range of 360-683μgL(-1) and 18.5-35.4mgL(-1), respectively. While AsT and F(-) concentrations in agriculture soil samples were observed in the range of 110-266 and 125-566mgkg(-1), respectively. The water extractable As and F(-) were found 3-4% of total concentration of these in soils. The AsT concentration was higher in kidney been (KB) as compared to pearl millet (PM) and green gram (GG), whereas GG had higher F(-) levels as compared to other two grain crops (p<0.05). The KB samples grown in nine sites shows BCF of As in the range of 0.018-0.038. The GG has higher BCF of F(-) as compared to KB and PM (p<0.05) grown in all sites. The exposure dose and risk factor of As and F(-) were obtained by estimated daily intake (EDI) and hazardous index (HI). It was found that all understudy age groups were at the severe risk of arsenicosis and fluorosis, but the severity is higher in younger age group (7-15years) as compared to elder groups (p<0.05).
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