Seromic analysis of antibody responses in non-small cell lung cancer patients and healthy donors using conformational protein arrays.
ABSTRACT Analysis of antibody responses to self-antigens has driven the development of the field of tumor immunology, with the identification of many protein targets found in cancer but with limited expression in normal tissues. Protein microarray technologies offer an unprecedented platform to assay the serological response of cancer patients to tumor antigens in a comprehensive fashion, against many proteins simultaneously. We developed an array containing 329 full-length proteins, originally identified as antigenic in various cancer patients by serological expression cloning (SEREX), that were immobilized as folded, functional products accessible for antibody binding. To validate the use of these microarrays, we selected 31 sera from non-small cell lung cancer patients previously known to react to the following antigens by ELISA: LAGE-1/CTAG2, MAGEA4, TP53, SSX and SOX2. These sera were compared with 22 sera from healthy donors for reactivity against a series of antigens present on microarrays. The sensitivity and specificity of the arrays compared favorably with standard ELISA techniques (94% concordance). We present here a stringent strategy for data analysis and normalization that is applicable to protein arrays in general, and describe findings suggesting that this approach is suitable for defining potential antigenic targets for cancer vaccine development, serum antibody signatures with clinical value, characterization of predictive serum markers for experimental therapeutics, and eventually for the serological definition of the cancer proteome (seromics).
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ABSTRACT: We conducted a cancer vaccine clinical trial with MAGE-A4 protein. Safety, clinical response, and antigen-specific immune responses were analyzed and the prognostic factors by vaccination were investigated.Vaccine 09/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Humoral immune responses against tumor antigens are studied as indirect markers of antigen exposure and in cancer vaccine studies. An increasing number of tumor antigens potentially translated from mutant genes is identified by advances in genomic sequencing. They represent an interesting source for yet unknown immunogenic epitopes. We here describe a multiplex method using the Luminex technology allowing for the detection of antibodies against multiple in silico-predicted linear neo-antigens in large sets of sera. The approach included 32 synthetic biotinylated peptides comprising a predicted set of frameshift mutation-induced neo-antigens. The antigens were fused to a FLAG epitope to ensure monitoring antigen binding to avidin-linked microspheres in the absence of monoclonal antibodies. Analytical specificity of measured serum antibody reactivity was proven by the detection of immune responses in immunized rabbits and a colorectal cancer patient vaccinated with peptides included in the assay. The measured antibody responses were comparable to peptide ELISA, and inter-assay reproducibility of the multiplex approach was excellent (R (2) > 0.98) for 20 sera tested against all antigens. Our methodic approach represents a valuable platform to monitor antibody responses against predicted antigens. It may be used in individualized cancer vaccine studies, thereby extending the relevance beyond the model system in the presented approach.Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 08/2014; · 3.94 Impact Factor
Article: Therapeutic cancer vaccines.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Therapeutic cancer vaccines have the potential of being integrated in the therapy of numerous cancer types and stages. The wide spectrum of vaccine platforms and vaccine targets is reviewed along with the potential for development of vaccines to target cancer cell "stemness," the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, and drug-resistant populations. Preclinical and recent clinical studies are now revealing how vaccines can optimally be used with other immune-based therapies such as checkpoint inhibitors, and so-called nonimmune-based therapeutics, radiation, hormonal therapy, and certain small molecule targeted therapies; it is now being revealed that many of these traditional therapies can lyse tumor cells in a manner as to further potentiate the host immune response, alter the phenotype of nonlysed tumor cells to render them more susceptible to T-cell lysis, and/or shift the balance of effector:regulatory cells in a manner to enhance vaccine efficacy. The importance of the tumor microenvironment, the appropriate patient population, and clinical trial endpoints is also discussed in the context of optimizing patient benefit from vaccine-mediated therapy.Advances in Cancer Research 01/2014; 121:67-124. · 4.26 Impact Factor