Effects of ginseng saponins isolated from red ginseng on ultraviolet B-induced skin aging in hairless mice

Division of Functional Histology, Department of Functional Biomedicine, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon City, Ehime 791-0295, Japan.
European journal of pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.53). 12/2008; 602(1):148-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.11.021
Source: PubMed


It is well-known that chronic ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure at low-dose causes skin photoaging including increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and reduction in skin elasticity. This study examined the effects of total saponins and ginsenoside Rb(1) isolated from Red Ginseng roots on skin thickness, elasticity, and wrinkle formation caused by long-term, low-dose UVB irradiation in hairless mice. The topical application of total ginseng saponins (10 pg or 100 ng/mouse) and ginsenoside Rb(1) (100 fg, 10 pg, or 1 ng/mouse) significantly inhibited increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and the reduction in skin elasticity induced by long-term UVB irradiation. Furthermore, we examined the histological effects of total saponins and ginsenoside Rb(1) in the skin of UVB-irradiated hairless mice. The increases in apoptotic, Ki-67-, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-positive cells induced by UVB exposure were prevented by the topical application of total saponins and ginsenoside Rb(1). Furthermore, total saponins and ginsenoside Rb(1) prevented the disruption of collagen fibers induced by the long-term UVB irradiation. Ginsenoside Rb(1) (100 fg, 10 pg, and 1 ng/ml) increased the Bcl-2 expression level in UVB-treated human keratinocytes. The protective effect of ginsenoside Rb(1) on UVB-mediated apoptosis may be due to the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. These results suggest that the protective effect of ginsenoside Rb(1) on skin photoaging induced by chronic UVB exposure may be due to the increase in collagen synthesis and/or the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase expression in dermal fibroblasts.

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    • "The specific mechanisms of AMPK activation by GPD in each experimental model should be studied further. The anti-photoaging effects of dietary or topically applied ginseng extract have been reported in hairless mice [Kang et al., 2009; Kim et al., 2009]. However, these studies have not addressed the inhibitory effects of individual ginsenosides on MMP-1 or the molecular mechanisms involved. "
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    ABSTRACT: Various health effects have been attributed to the ginsenoside metabolite 20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (GPD); however, its effect on ultraviolet (UV)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression and the mechanism underlying this effect are unknown. We examined the inhibitory effect of GPD on UV-induced MMP-1 expression and its mechanisms in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). GPD attenuated UV-induced MMP-1 expression in HDFs and suppressed the UV-induced phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70S6K without inhibiting the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt, which are well-known upstream kinases of mTOR. GPD augmented the phosphorylation of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which are inhibitors of mTOR, to a greater extent than UV treatment alone. Similar to GPD, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl 5′-monophosphate (AICAR), an activator of AMPK, augmented UV-induced AMPK phosphorylation to a greater extent than UV treatment alone, resulting in the inhibition of MMP-1 expression. AICAR also decreased the phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K. However, compound C, an antagonist of AMPK, increased MMP-1 expression. In HDF cells with AMPK knock-down using shRNA, MMP-1 expression was increased. These results indicate that AMPK activation plays a key role in MMP-1 suppression. Additionally, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, H-89, antagonized GPD-mediated MMP-1 suppression via the inhibition of LKB1. Our results suggest that the suppressive activity of GPD on UV-induced MMP-1 expression is due to the activation of AMPK as a downstream of the PKA-LKB1 pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 10/2014; 115(10). DOI:10.1002/jcb.24833 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    • "A variety of herbs and plants have been used in cosmetic applications for the treatment of collagen synthesis and collagenase inhibition [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]. Many natural compounds from plants have been reported that they are potential sources of MMP inhibitors, which may prevent or impair UV-induced skin aging [23] [24] [25]. In the present study, we evaluated the preventive effects of Disporum sessile D.Don which belongs to Liliaceae family on UVB-induced MMP-1 expression in HaCaT cells and MMP-1 expression and collagen production in NHDF cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we report that Disporum sessile D.Don herbal extract (DDE) possesses anti-skin photoaging effect through inhibition of MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression levels and increase collagen production in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblast cells (NHDF). To delineate the molecular mechanism by which DDE inhibited MMP-1 expression, immortal human keratinocytes cells (HaCaT) have been used. We have found that DDE inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression levels in HaCaT cells through inhibition of UVB-induced activation of NF-κB in HaCaT cells. Inhibitors of NF-κB (Bay11-7082), and mitogen-activated protein kinases such as extracellular regulated kinase (PD98059), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125), and p38 (SB203580) suppressed expression of MMP-1, and phosphorylation of these signaling molecules were attenuated by DDE. DDE also inhibited phosphorylation of IKKα and IκBα, and reduced nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Our results also demonstrated that DDE inhibited NF-κB driven expression of luciferase reporter gene and the DNA binding of NF-κB to its cognate binding site in UV-irradiated cells. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that DDE can be utilized as a potential agent for prevention and treatment of skin photoaging.
    Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology 03/2014; 133C:73-79. DOI:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.03.002 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    • "Effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on skin elasticity in chronic UVB-irradiated male hairless (HRM-1) mice [31]. The experiments were performed as described in Figure 9. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ginseng roots (Panax ginseng CA Meyer) have been used traditionally for the treatment, especially prevention, of various diseases in China, Korea, and Japan. Both experimental and clinical studies suggest ginseng roots to have pharmacological effects in patients with life-style-related diseases such as non-insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. The topical use of ginseng roots to treat skin complaints including atopic suppurative dermatitis, wounds, and inflammation is also described in ancient Chinese texts; however, there have been relatively few studies in this area. In the present paper, we describe introduce the biological and pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rb₁ isolated from Red ginseng roots on skin damage caused by burn-wounds using male Balb/c mice (in vivo) and by ultraviolet B irradiation using male C57BL/6J and albino hairless (HR-1) mice (in vivo). Furthermore, to clarify the mechanisms behind these pharmacological actions, human primary keratinocytes and the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT were used in experiments in vitro.
    BioMed Research International 02/2012; 2012:946242. DOI:10.1155/2012/946242 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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