Delayed processing of blood increases the frequency of activated CD11b+ CD15+ granulocytes which inhibit T cell function
ABSTRACT We tested whether granulocytes, which contaminate PBMC isolates after prolonged blood storage at room temperature, are responsible for inhibited T cell function in aged blood. We extend previous observations by characterizing these contaminating granulocytes as CD11b+ CD15+ cells comparable to activated CD11b+ CD15+ granulocytes induced by incubation of blood with FMLP. Granulocyte contamination of PBMC was observed within 6-8 h after venipuncture and room temperature storage (2.3 fold increase), and increased 11.3-fold by 24-26 h in comparison to PBMC from fresh blood. Refrigerated 22-26 hour storage of blood exacerbated granulocyte contamination (84-fold increase). In contrast, granulocyte contamination was markedly reduced if blood was diluted in RPMI-1640 medium (3.9-fold increase) or PBS (1.8-fold increase) prior to 22-26 hour room temperature storage. Granulocyte contamination significantly correlated with reduced CD3zeta chain expression, a marker of T cell dysfunction. Correspondingly, T cell proliferation following PHA stimulation was significantly decreased in PBMC with contaminating granulocytes from aged blood (77% of control) or FMLP treated blood (44% of control). Minimizing granulocyte contamination in PBMC of aged blood by cell sorting, or by reducing granulocyte activation by diluting blood in PBS prior to storage, increased CD3zeta chain expression and increased T cell proliferation following stimulation. These data indicate that granulocytes inhibit T cell function in aged blood. Therefore, preventing granulocyte activation in blood specimens is critical to maintain optimal T cell function. This may be accomplished by limiting the time from venipuncture to PBMC isolation to <8 h and may be extended to 26 h by simply diluting blood in PBS prior to room temperature storage.
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- "It is not known whether there were negative effects from storing or shipping at 4°C. Our data show that there is better viability, cell yield, and function when cells are shipped at room temperature (22°C) or 30°C than at 15°C, and it is generally accepted that storage of whole blood at 4°C negatively impacts cell viability , function , and population recovery [6,7,43,44]. Acknowledging the range of data in the literature, in a separate study, we are also evaluating the function of PBMC processed the same day (< 8 h) or after overnight shipping or storage (manuscript in preparation). "
ABSTRACT: Clinical trials of immunologic therapies provide opportunities to study the cellular and molecular effects of those therapies and may permit identification of biomarkers of response. When the trials are performed at multiple centers, transport and storage of clinical specimens become important variables that may affect lymphocyte viability and function in blood and tissue specimens. The effect of temperature during storage and shipment of peripheral blood on subsequent processing, recovery, and function of lymphocytes is understudied and represents the focus of this study. Peripheral blood samples (n = 285) from patients enrolled in 2 clinical trials of a melanoma vaccine were shipped from clinical centers 250 or 1100 miles to a central laboratory at the sponsoring institution. The yield of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected before and after cryostorage was correlated with temperatures encountered during shipment. Also, to simulate shipping of whole blood, heparinized blood from healthy donors was collected and stored at 15 °C, 22 °C, 30 °C, or 40 °C, for varied intervals before isolation of PBMC. Specimen integrity was assessed by measures of yield, recovery, viability, and function of isolated lymphocytes. Several packaging systems were also evaluated during simulated shipping for the ability to maintain the internal temperature in adverse temperatures over time. Blood specimen containers experienced temperatures during shipment ranging from -1 to 35 °C. Exposure to temperatures above room temperature (22 °C) resulted in greater yields of PBMC. Reduced cell recovery following cryo-preservation as well as decreased viability and immune function were observed in specimens exposed to 15 °C or 40 °C for greater than 8 hours when compared to storage at 22 °C. There was a trend toward improved preservation of blood specimen integrity stored at 30 °C prior to processing for all time points tested. Internal temperatures of blood shipping containers were maintained longer in an acceptable range when warm packs were included. Blood packages shipped overnight by commercial carrier may encounter extreme seasonal temperatures. Therefore, considerations in the design of shipping containers should include protecting against extreme ambient temperature deviations and maintaining specimen temperature above 22 °C or preferably near 30 °C.Journal of Translational Medicine 03/2011; 9:26. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-9-26 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vitro production of bovine interferon gamma (BoIFN-γ) cytokine from bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can be detected using the most sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. ELISPOT assays are dependent on the quantity and quality of PBMC preparations and hence contribute significantly to the performance of this assay. In order to standardise the methods for isolation of PBMCs, we compared two methods for the processing of bovine blood which included aliquots of blood that were stored in a horizontal position without dilution or agitation and aliquots of blood that were immediately diluted 1:1 with complete Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 medium and stored in a horizontal position with gentle agitation. PBMCs were isolated at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h and at 4°C and at 22°C ± 2°C. They were stimulated using tuberculosis-specific antigens, after which the ELISPOT assay was performed. Quantities of spot-forming cells (SFC) created by the release of BoIFN-γ in ELISPOT assays were significantly greater in the samples stored at 22°C ± 2°C than those held +4°C and the intensity of the signals dropped following processing after 6 h. A further drop in SFC was observed in those samples that had been stored undiluted and without agitation. These findings demonstrated that optimisation of PBMC isolation procedures can lead to increased sensitivity in the detection of BoIFN-γ using the ELISPOT assay, thus contributing to an enhanced diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.Veterinaria italiana 47(1):25-34. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether activated CD11b(+) CD15(+) granulocytes increase in the blood of patients with uveal melanoma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated by density gradient centrifugation from the blood of patients with primary choroidal/ciliochoroidal uveal melanomas (six women, four men; age range, 46-91 years) and healthy control donors (14 women, 10 men; age range, 50-81 years). The expression of CD15 and CD68 on CD11b(+) myeloid cells within PBMCs and primary uveal melanomas was evaluated by flow cytometry. CD3zeta chain expression by CD3epsilon(+) T cells in PBMCs and within primary uveal melanomas was measured as an indirect indication of T-cell function. The percentage of CD11b(+) cells in PBMCs of patients with uveal melanoma increased 1.8-fold in comparison to healthy donors and comprised three subsets: CD68 negative CD15(+) granulocytes, which increased 4.1-fold; CD68(-) CD15(-) cells, which increased threefold; and CD68(+) CD15(low) cells, which were unchanged. A significant (2.7-fold) reduction in CD3zeta chain expression on CD3epsilon(+) T cells, a marker of T-cell dysfunction, was observed in PBMCs of patients with uveal melanoma in comparison with healthy control subjects and correlated significantly with the percentage of CD11b(+) cells in PBMCs. CD3zeta chain expression on T cells within primary tumors was equivalent to CD3zeta expression in PBMCs of the same patient in four of five patients analyzed. Activated CD11b(+) CD15(+) granulocytes expand in the blood of patients with uveal melanoma and may contribute to immune evasion by ocular tumors by inhibiting T-cell function via decreasing CD3zeta chain expression.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 05/2009; 50(9):4295-303. DOI:10.1167/iovs.08-3012 · 3.66 Impact Factor