Delayed processing of blood increases the frequency of activated CD11b+ CD15+ granulocytes which inhibit T cell function.
ABSTRACT We tested whether granulocytes, which contaminate PBMC isolates after prolonged blood storage at room temperature, are responsible for inhibited T cell function in aged blood. We extend previous observations by characterizing these contaminating granulocytes as CD11b+ CD15+ cells comparable to activated CD11b+ CD15+ granulocytes induced by incubation of blood with FMLP. Granulocyte contamination of PBMC was observed within 6-8 h after venipuncture and room temperature storage (2.3 fold increase), and increased 11.3-fold by 24-26 h in comparison to PBMC from fresh blood. Refrigerated 22-26 hour storage of blood exacerbated granulocyte contamination (84-fold increase). In contrast, granulocyte contamination was markedly reduced if blood was diluted in RPMI-1640 medium (3.9-fold increase) or PBS (1.8-fold increase) prior to 22-26 hour room temperature storage. Granulocyte contamination significantly correlated with reduced CD3zeta chain expression, a marker of T cell dysfunction. Correspondingly, T cell proliferation following PHA stimulation was significantly decreased in PBMC with contaminating granulocytes from aged blood (77% of control) or FMLP treated blood (44% of control). Minimizing granulocyte contamination in PBMC of aged blood by cell sorting, or by reducing granulocyte activation by diluting blood in PBS prior to storage, increased CD3zeta chain expression and increased T cell proliferation following stimulation. These data indicate that granulocytes inhibit T cell function in aged blood. Therefore, preventing granulocyte activation in blood specimens is critical to maintain optimal T cell function. This may be accomplished by limiting the time from venipuncture to PBMC isolation to <8 h and may be extended to 26 h by simply diluting blood in PBS prior to room temperature storage.
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ABSTRACT: L-arginine (L-Arg) plays a central role in several biologic systems including the regulation of T-cell function. L-Arg depletion by myeloid-derived suppressor cells producing arginase I is seen in patients with cancer inducing T-cell anergy. We studied how L-Arg starvation could regulate T-cell-cycle progression. Stimulated T cells cultured in the absence of L-Arg are arrested in the G0-G1phase of the cell cycle. This was associated with an inability of T cells to up-regulate cyclin D3 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), but not cdk6, resulting in an impaired downstream signaling with a decreased phosphorylation of Rb protein and a low expression and binding of E2F1. Silencing of cyclin D3 reproduced the cell cycle arrest caused by L-Arg starvation. The regulation of cyclin D3 and cdk4 by L-Arg starvation occurs at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Signaling through GCN2 kinase is triggered during amino acid starvation. Experiments demonstrated that T cells from GCN2 knock-out mice did not show a decreased proliferation and were able to up-regulate cyclin D3 when cultured in the absence of L-Arg. These results contribute to the understanding of a central mechanism by which cancer and other diseases characterized by high arginase I production may cause T-cell dysfunction.Blood 03/2007; 109(4):1568-73. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myeloid suppressor cells with high arginase activity are found in tumors and spleen of mice with colon and lung cancer. These cells, described as macrophages or immature dendritic cells, deplete arginine and impair T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Although arginase activity has been described in cancer patients, it is thought to originate from tumor cells metabolizing arginine to ornithine needed to sustain rapid cell proliferation. The goal of this study was to determine whether myeloid suppressor cells producing high arginase existed in renal cell carcinoma patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 123 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, prior to treatment, were found to have a significantly increased arginase activity. These patients had a markedly decreased cytokine production and expressed low levels of T cell receptor CD3zeta chain. Cell separation studies showed that the increased arginase activity was limited to a specific subset of CD11b+, CD14-, CD15+ cells with a polymorphonuclear granulocyte morphology and markers, instead of macrophages or dendritic cells described in mouse models. Furthermore, these patients had low levels of arginine and high levels of ornithine in plasma. Depletion of the CD11b+, CD14- myeloid suppressor cells reestablished T cell proliferation and CD3zeta chain expression. These results showed, for the first time, the existence of suppressor myeloid cells producing arginase in human cancer patients. In addition, it supports the concept that blocking arginase may be an important step in the success of immunotherapy.Cancer Research 05/2005; 65(8):3044-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) ELISpot and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays are routinely employed in clinical HIV vaccine trials to identify antigen-specific T cells in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Several parameters involved in blood collection, processing and shipping may influence immunological function of the resulting cells, including anticoagulant type, time from venipuncture to PBMC isolation/cryopreservation, method of PBMC isolation and procedure for sample shipping. We examined these parameters in single and multiple site studies, and found the length of time from venipuncture to cryopreservation is the most important parameter affecting performance of T cells in immunological assays. Comparing blood processed at 24 h after venipuncture with that processed within 8 h, we observed on average a modest reduction in PBMC viability ( approximately 8% decrease), a greater loss in cell recovery ( approximately 32%), and between 36-56% loss in IFN-gamma T cell frequencies by ELISpot assay. We also describe three cold shipping methods that maintain immunological function in appropriately cryopreserved PBMC. These data indicate that cryopreservation of PBMC should occur within 8 h of venipuncture for optimal performance. This narrow window for specimen processing has important implications in selecting and monitoring clinical sites with laboratory capacity to perform these procedures in future clinical trials.Journal of Immunological Methods 05/2007; 322(1-2):57-69. · 2.23 Impact Factor