Delayed processing of blood increases the frequency of activated CD11b+ CD15+ granulocytes which inhibit T cell function.
ABSTRACT We tested whether granulocytes, which contaminate PBMC isolates after prolonged blood storage at room temperature, are responsible for inhibited T cell function in aged blood. We extend previous observations by characterizing these contaminating granulocytes as CD11b+ CD15+ cells comparable to activated CD11b+ CD15+ granulocytes induced by incubation of blood with FMLP. Granulocyte contamination of PBMC was observed within 6-8 h after venipuncture and room temperature storage (2.3 fold increase), and increased 11.3-fold by 24-26 h in comparison to PBMC from fresh blood. Refrigerated 22-26 hour storage of blood exacerbated granulocyte contamination (84-fold increase). In contrast, granulocyte contamination was markedly reduced if blood was diluted in RPMI-1640 medium (3.9-fold increase) or PBS (1.8-fold increase) prior to 22-26 hour room temperature storage. Granulocyte contamination significantly correlated with reduced CD3zeta chain expression, a marker of T cell dysfunction. Correspondingly, T cell proliferation following PHA stimulation was significantly decreased in PBMC with contaminating granulocytes from aged blood (77% of control) or FMLP treated blood (44% of control). Minimizing granulocyte contamination in PBMC of aged blood by cell sorting, or by reducing granulocyte activation by diluting blood in PBS prior to storage, increased CD3zeta chain expression and increased T cell proliferation following stimulation. These data indicate that granulocytes inhibit T cell function in aged blood. Therefore, preventing granulocyte activation in blood specimens is critical to maintain optimal T cell function. This may be accomplished by limiting the time from venipuncture to PBMC isolation to <8 h and may be extended to 26 h by simply diluting blood in PBS prior to room temperature storage.
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ABSTRACT: To characterize the cell mediated immunity (CMI) induced by the investigational CYD tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV), we developed a whole-blood, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay and a multiplex assay, each requiring 3 mL of blood. We assessed CMI before and 28 d after a first and third injection of CYD-TDV and one year after the third injection in a subset of 80 adolescents and adults enrolled in a phase II trial in Singapore (ClinicalTrial.gov NCT NCT00880893). CD4/IFNγ/TNFα responses specific to dengue NS3 were detected before vaccination. Vaccination induced YF-17D-NS3-specific CD8/IFNγ responses, without significant TNFα, and a CYD-specific Th1/Tc1 cellular response in all participants, which was characterized by predominant IFNγ secretion compared with TNFα, associated with low level IL-13 secretion in multiplex analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) supernatants after restimulation with each the CYD vaccine viruses. Responses were directed mainly against CYD-4 after the first vaccination, and were more balanced against all four serotypes after the third vaccination. The same qualitative profile was observed one year after the third vaccination, with approximately 2-fold lower NS3-specific responses, and 3-fold lower serotype-specific cellular responses. These findings confirm previous observations regarding both the nature and specificity of cellular responses induced by CYD-TDV, and for the first time demonstrate the persistence of cellular responses after one year. We also established the feasibility of analyzing CMI with small blood samples, allowing such analysis to be considered for pediatric trials.Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 07/2013; 9(11).
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ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite that infects humans and animals. Ingested parasites cross the intestinal epithelium, invade leukocytes and are then disseminated to peripheral organs. However, the mechanism of extravasation of the infected leukocytes remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that T. gondii-invaded human and mouse leukocytes express higher level of CD44, a ligand of hyaluronan (HA), and its expression on myeloid and non-myeloid leukocytes causes T. gondii-invaded human and mouse leukocyte to adhere to HA more effectively than non-invaded leukocytes. The specific adherence of parasite-invaded leukocytes was inhibited by anti CD44 antibody. Leukocytes of CD44 knockout mice did not show parasite-invaded leukocyte specific adhesion. Our results indicate that parasite-invaded leukocytes, regardless of whether myeloid or not, gain higher ability to adhere to HA than non-invaded leukocytes, via upregulation of CD44 expression and/or selective invasion to CD44 highly expressing cells. The difference in ability to adhere to HA between parasite-invaded cells and non-invaded neighboring cells might facilitate effective delivery of parasite-invaded leukocytes to the HA-producing endothelial cell surface and/or HA-rich extra cellular matrix.Parasitology International 10/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients who develop therapy-related myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia after autologous-hematopoietic stem cell (aHCT) transplant show lower expression levels of DNA repair genes in their pre-aHCT CD34+ cells. To investigate whether this leads to functional differences in DNA repair abilities measurable in patients, we adapted two plasmid-based host-cell reactivation assays for use in primary lymphocytes. Prior to applying these assays to patients who underwent aHCT, we wanted first to verify whether sample preparation affected repair measurements, as patient samples were simply depleted of erythrocytes (with hetastarch) prior to freezing, which is not the classical way to prepare lymphocytes prior to DNA repair experiments (with a density gradient). We show here that lymphocytes from healthy donors freshly prepared with hetastarch show systematically a higher level of double-strand break repair as compared to when prepared with a density gradient, but that most of this difference disappears after samples were frozen. Several observations points to granulocytes as the source for this effect of sample preparation on repair: 1) removal of granulocytes makes the effect disappear, 2) DSB repair measurements for the same individual correlate to the percentage of granulocytes in the sample and 3) nucleofection in presence of granulocytes increases the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neighboring lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner (R2 of 0.95). These results indicate that co-purified granulocytes, possibly through the release of ROS at time of transfection, can lead to an enhanced repair in lymphocytes that obfuscates any evaluation of inter individual differences in repair as measured by host-cell reactivation. As a result, hetastarch-prepared samples are likely unsuitable for the assessment of DSB repair in primary cells with that type of assay. Granulocyte contamination that exists after a density gradient preparation, although much more limited, could have similar effects, but might be circumvented by freezing cells prior to analysis.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e93185. · 3.73 Impact Factor