Article

Variation in Medication Adherence in Heart Failure

JAMA Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 13.25). 02/2013; 173(6):1-2. DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.2509
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Recent and national data on adherence to heart failure drugs are limited, particularly among the disabled and some small minority groups, such as Native Americans and Hispanics. We compare medication adherence among Medicare patients with heart failure, by disability status, race/ethnicity, and income. Observational study. US Medicare Parts A, B, and D data, 5 % random sample, 2007-2009. 149,893 elderly Medicare beneficiaries and 21,204 disabled non-elderly beneficiaries. We examined 5 % of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with heart failure in 2007-2009. The main outcome was 1-year adherence to one of three therapeutic classes: β-blockers, diuretics, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). Adherence was defined as having prescriptions in possession for ≥ 75 % of days. Among aged beneficiaries, 1-year adherences to at least one heart failure drug were 63 %, 57 %, 53 %, 50 %, and 52 % for Whites, Asians, Hispanics, Native Americans and Blacks, respectively; among the disabled, 1-year adherence was worse for each group: 57 %, 53 %, 48 %, 44 % and 43 % respectively. The racial/ethnic difference persisted after adjustment for age, gender, income, drug coverage, location and health status. Patterns of adherence were similar among beneficiaries on all three therapeutic classes. Among beneficiaries with close-to-full drug coverage, minorities were still less likely to adhere relative to Whites, OR = 0.61 (95 % CI 0.58-0.64) for Hispanics, OR = 0.59 (95 % CI 0.57-0.62) for Blacks and OR = 0.57 (95 % CI 0.47-0.68) for Native Americans. After the implementation of Medicare Part D, adherence to heart failure drugs remains problematic, especially among disabled and minority beneficiaries, including Native Americans, Blacks, and Hispanics. Even among those with close-to-full drug coverage, racial differences remain, suggesting that policies simply relying on cost reduction cannot eliminate racial differences.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Few studies have investigated regional variation in medication-taking behaviour. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are regional differences in non-persistence and non-adherence to oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents in patients initiating therapy and examine if any association exists between different types of comorbidity in terms of medication-taking behaviour. Methods The Irish Health Services Executive (HSE) pharmacy claims database was used to identify new users of metformin or sulphonylureas, aged ≥25 years, initiating therapy between June 2009 and December 2010. Non-persistence and non-adherence were examined up to 12 months post-initiation. Comorbidity was assessed using modified RxRisk and RxRisk-V indices, and classified as either concordant and/or discordant with diabetes. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) for non-persistence were determined in relation to both HSE region and comorbidity type using Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age, sex and initial OAH prescribed. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for these covariates, was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % CIs for non-adherence for both HSE region and comorbidity type. Results Results showed little overall difference between regions. The largest reduction for both non-persistence (HR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.80, 0.94) and non-adherence (OR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.74, 0.93) was observed in the south. Any comorbidity was associated with a reduced risk of non-persistence and non-adherence. Conclusions Interventions to optimise medication-taking in patients with T2DM should be implemented nationally to improve the overall level of adherence and persistence, especially in patients with no comorbidity.
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