Physical activity, dietary habits and overall health in overweight and obese children and youth with intellectual disability or autism

Centre for Child Health Research, Institute of Public Health and Mental Health, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand. Electronic address: .
Research in developmental disabilities (Impact Factor: 4.41). 04/2013; 34(4):1170-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.12.006
Source: PubMed


In children and youth with disability, the risk of obesity is higher and is associated with lower levels of physical activity, inappropriate eating behaviors, and chronic health conditions. We determined the effectiveness of a program in managing weight, through changes in physical activity and nutrition behaviors in overweight and obese New Zealand children and youth with intellectual disability or autism. Twenty-two children and youth 14±4 y (mean±SD) and their families participated in a 10-week school-based program. The program consisted of 18 sessions focusing on physical activity and nutrition. Changes were measured immediately after completion of the program (post 1) and at 24 weeks (follow up). Fitness was assessed with the six-minute walk-test (6MWT) and body fatness via waist circumference and BMI. Physical activity and nutrition changes were measured by means of proxy reporting and interviews with parents. Individual interviews were conducted with school teachers and program leaders at 24 weeks to gain feedback regarding the program. Most quantitative outcomes were either unclear or trivial. The only possible change was observed in the six-minute walk-test where 24 weeks post program where participants walked 51m further. There was however, a substantial reduction in the consumption of confectionery and chocolate at the two measurement points. Parents commented that during the program there were less hospital visits and absences from school related to illness. The program assisted in the development of a supportive community network and participants' abilities to partake in family and community activities. This the first study to report on the results of a physical activity and nutrition program targeted in children and youth with intellectual disability and autism. The results of this study may support and inform future developments of an integrated weight management and prevention program to enhance the health and well being in children and youth with disabilities.

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    • "Substantial adaptations were made to the original MEND programme to accommodate the range of physical, cognitive and communication impairments of students. Authors posited that schools likely represent the optimal venue for the delivery of nutrition programmes for youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities, but remarked on the labourintensive aspects of collaboration which included a reliance on the special education teachers to adapt and implement the programme (Hinckson et al. 2013). Our qualitative research builds upon the work of Hinckson et al. and highlights a variety of factors for researchers to consider when adapting evidenced-based programmes for youth with I/DD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Evidenced-based health promotion programmes for youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are notably absent. Barriers include a lack of understanding of how to adapt existing evidence-based programmes to their needs, maximize inclusion and support mutual goals of health and autonomy.Methods We undertook a community-engaged process to adapt a school-based nutrition intervention in a residential school for youth with I/DD. Focus groups and interviews with school staff elicited recommendations for adaptation strategies; these were then reviewed by an expert panel.ResultsAdaptations were developed to address needs in three categories: food-related challenges among students, adjusting to change and transition and social environment factors. Choice and heterogeneity were overarching themes across the adaptation categories.Conclusions Future research should consider community-engaged approaches for adaptation so that youth with I/DD can participate and benefit from evidence-based health promotion programmes to their maximum potential.
    Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 06/2014; 27(6). DOI:10.1111/jar.12104 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    • "The latter may be due to the number of barriers they face in doing a physical activity and to the few resources and opportunities open to them [2]. However, currently awareness of the barriers and facilitators for people with ID which enable them to take part in physical activity is poor [3] so we find health problems like obesity or chronic disease in this population [4]. People with ID have a poor maintenance in physical activity and it’s important to try to help them to improve this maintenance [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have lower levels of physical activity and quality of life and they have a lot of barriers to face when taking part in physical activity. Other problems are the poor adherence to physical activity such people have so this study is designed to improve adherence to physical activity for people with intellectual disabilities with the assistance of an application for smartphones. The aim of the study will be to improve physical activity and physical condition after multimodal intervention and to analyse the promotion of adherence to physical activity through a multimodal intervention and an app intervention (mHealth) in people with ID. A two-stage study will be conducted. In stage 1 a multimodal intervention will take place will be done with physical activity and educational advice over eight weeks, two days a week. Data will be measured after and before the intervention. In stage 2 a randomized controlled trial will be conducted. In the intervention group we will install an application to a smartphone; this application will be a reminder to do a physical activity and they have to select whether they have or haven't done a physical activity every day. This application will be installed for 18 weeks. Data will be measured after and before the application is installed in two groups. We will measure results 10 weeks later when the two groups don't have the reminder. The principal outcome used to measure the adherence to physical activity will be the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; secondary outcomes will be a fun-fitness test and self-report survey about quality of life, self-efficacy and social support. Samples will be randomized by sealed envelope in two groups, with approximately 20 subjects in each group. It's important to know that the therapist will be blinded and won't know the subjects of each group. Offering people with ID a multimodal intervention and tool to increase the adherence to a physical activity may increase the levels of physical activity and quality of life. Such a scheme, if beneficial, could be implemented successfully within public health sense.Trial registration: Identifier: NCT01915381.
    BMC Public Health 12/2013; 13(1):1173. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1173 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the differences in vertical squat jump (SJ) between volunteers with and without intellectual disability (ID). Thirteen boys with ID (average intelligence quotient, estimated by Wisk III test: 55.6±11.2) and 13 peers without disabilities performed maximal SJ on a force platform. Kinematic data were captured using a six-camera 3D motion analysis system and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using surface electrodes. Unpaired T-test determined the statistical difference between the two groups. The obtained results indicated that the group with ID, jumped lower, developed lower vertical ground reaction forces, knee power output, knee angular velocity, and take-off velocity, and showed longer propulsion duration, decreased mean to maximum agonist EMG activity and higher antagonist/agonist activity ratio. The deficit in the SJ observed in individuals with ID was attributed to a deficit in the examined mechanical and neuromuscular parameters, and especially to the agonist and antagonist co-contraction.
    Research in developmental disabilities 06/2013; 34(9):2856-2863. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.05.046 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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