The outlook for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia has improved in the past 30 years. Unlike other cancers, much of this progress is attributable to refinement of supportive treatment, rather than the introduction of new drugs. New antibacterial and antifungal agents, antiemetics, and improved transfusion support have decreased the rate of early death, and morbidity and mortality from allogeneic stem cell transplantation has been substantially reduced. However, more than half of young adult patients and about 90% of older patients still die from their disease. Refractoriness to initial induction treatment and, more frequently, relapse after complete remission, are still the main obstacles to cure. Accordingly, new treatment approaches with mechanisms of action different from those of conventional chemotherapy are needed. Our knowledge of the various chromosomal and molecular abnormalities implicated in the pathogenesis of the many subtypes of the disease has greatly expanded; as a result, clinical research is moving towards the investigation of new non-cytotoxic agents in combination with chemotherapy. The goal is to target the molecular abnormalities identified at diagnosis; however, several aberrations can coexist in subclones of acute myeloid leukaemia, making the disease less likely to be inhibited by a single agent.
"A substantial number of studies have revealed that MPN or MDS can evolve into AML in some patients . AML is a heterogeneous disease that results from the clonal expansion of myeloblasts in the BM and PB and may involve only one or all myeloid cell lineages  . Numerous recurrent gene fusions (such as t(15;17)/PML-RARA, t(8:21)/AML1- ETO, inv(16)/CBFB-MYH11, and t(9;11)/MLL-MLLT3) and point mutations (such as NPM1, FLT3, KIT, and CEBPA), associated with class I (proliferation advantage) and class II (differentiation blockage) mutations, have been identified over the past several decades. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloid malignancies are heterogeneous disorders characterized by uncontrolled proliferation or/and blockage of differentiation of myeloid progenitor cells. Although a substantial number of gene alterations have been identified, the mechanism by which these abnormalities interact has yet to be elucidated. Over the past decades, zebrafish have become an important model organism, especially in biomedical research. Several zebrafish models have been developed to recapitulate the characteristics of specific myeloid malignancies that provide novel insight into the pathogenesis of these diseases and allow the evaluation of novel small molecule drugs. This report will focus on illustrative examples of applications of zebrafish models, including transgenesis, zebrafish xenograft models, and cell transplantation approaches, to the study of human myeloid malignancies.
BioMed Research International 06/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/641475 · 2.71 Impact Factor
"Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of blood forming cells in the bone marrow and it can occur in people of all ages . The usual treatment for AML involves two phases – induction and consolidation, and includes stem cell transplantation . This means that leukemia patients need a long-term treatment. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bilateral deafness can occur in patients with acute leukemia and it can cause communication problems and depressed mood during the treatment of leukemia. Cochlear implantation (CI) is the choice of hearing rehabilitation; however, there is scarce information about the safety of CI during the treatment of leukemia. A 50-year-old female leukemia patient was successfully implanted with a Nucleus cochlear implant while in complete remission before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Until now, with a follow-up of 4 years, the patient has useful hearing perception without any complications. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a successful CI in a patient with acute leukemia during the treatment of leukemia.
"Western medicine should be used in preference to Kampo medicine in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Medical diagnosis based on western medicine is essential to determine the exact degree of progression and malignancy of cancer    . Western medicine successfully treats many types of cancer, when the appropriate treatment is used. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical trials to date demonstrate that standard cancer treatments are currently the most efficient treatments for large numbers of cancer patients. Cancer treatments will increasingly require approaches that allow patients to live with cancer, by increasing their natural healing power and tumor immunity, as well as attenuating the progression of their cancers, instead of only attacking the cancer cells directly. Complementary and alternative medicine, including Kampo medicine, compensates for the drawbacks of western medicine by increasing patients' self-defense mechanisms. In Japan, clinicians who have studied both western medicine and Kampo treat cancer patients by fusing the two medical systems into a unitary one. The goal of the system is to assist the functional maintenance and recovery of the living body complex with the physical, mental, social, and spiritual balance, rather than addressing direct antitumor effects. In this review, we describe the usefulness of Kampo medicine, especially juzentaihoto, and outline the reports on evidence, in addition to the report on an attitudinal survey about the use of Kampo medicine in cancer treatment in Japan.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2013; 2013(3):570848. DOI:10.1155/2013/570848 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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