Background The inappropriate use of antibiotics is considered a main cause of microbial resistance. This is an important public health problem. Community pharmacists have an important role in the management of drugs for outpatients. Objective Our study sought to explore pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and dispensing habits insofar as to antibiotics and microbial resistance. Setting The study was developed with community pharmacists in the North of Portugal. Methods Qualitative research in the form of focus groups (FG). Focus groups were conducted with 4-7 pharmacists, using a moderator. A topic guide was developed to lead the discussions, which were audio-recorded and transcribed. The study was carried out between December 2010 and March 2011 in the five districts of the Northern Health Region of Portugal (ARS-N). Pharmacists from different regions of each district were invited to participate in the study by an investigator responsible for the study. Participants were informed about the study and that sessions were audio-recorded to facilitate data interpretation. They signed an informed consent form before taking part in the focus groups. The Ethical Committee of ARS-N was informed of this study. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' knowledge and perceptions on antibiotic use and microbial resistance, attitudes related to antibiotic dispensing habits, and pharmacists' suggestions to improve antibiotic use. Results A total of 6 focus groups were conducted with community pharmacists (n = 32). Attitudes related to the problem of resistance were attributed external responsibility, to patients, to physicians, to other pharmacies, and to veterinary consumption. Some attitudes were identified that could lead to antibiotic dispensing without a prescription. These attitudes are complacency, precaution and external complacency. Conclusions Portuguese pharmacists perceive that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance could be improved, showing a behavioural intention to improve antibiotic dispensing habits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are commonly dispensed medications from community pharmacies, and they are frequently prescribed for inappropriate indications. In many countries, they are easily accessible without prescriptions. The inappropriate use of antibiotics results in the emergence of resistant bacterial strains, which represents a considerable public health problem, particularly in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the pattern of antibiotics dispensing from Egyptian community pharmacies and to collect baseline descriptive data on the antibiotics dispensed and their appropriateness. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study of antibiotic dispensing encounters was conducted at 36 randomly selected pharmacies in Greater Cairo, Egypt. Data were collected during one shift at each pharmacy. Structured questionnaires recording patient demographics, antibiotics dispensed and reasons for dispensing were completed for each antibiotic dispensing encounter. The data were descriptively analysed. RESULTS: Overall, 1158 antibiotics were dispensed during the study period with a total cost of L.E. 24,487 (approximately 3,673 $USD). While self-medication and purchasing without medical prescriptions were common, representing around 23.3% of the antibiotics (n = 270), most antibiotics were prescribed by a doctor or dentist (n = 736, 63.6%). Pharmacist recommendations accounted for the remainder (n = 152, 13.1%). The main reasons for antibiotic use were respiratory tract ailments and gastroenteritis symptoms. The antibiotics most commonly dispensed were: penicillins, erythromycin, metronidazole, neomycin, clotrimoxazole and tetracyclines. Approximately 70% of the antibiotics dispensed on prescriptions were judged to be appropriate for the indications while this percentage was around 61% for antibiotics dispensed on pharmacist recommendation and patient's request. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that antibiotics are frequently dispensed from community pharmacies in Egypt without appropriate prescriptions and for inappropriate indications. These findings support the need for strict enforcement of pharmacy laws through improved inspection processes. They highlight the need for evidence-based guidelines and educational interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing and dispensing practices.
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 05/2013; 10(1). DOI:10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.03.004 · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop and evaluate the reliability of a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes and knowledge of community pharmacists in Portugal about microbial resistance and the antibiotic dispensing process.
This study was divided into the following three stages: (1) design of the questionnaire, which included a literature review and a qualitative study with focus-group sessions; (2) assessment of face and content validity, using a panel of experts and a pre-test of community pharmacists; and, (3) pilot study and reliability analysis, which included a test-retest study covering fifty practising pharmacists based at community pharmacies in five districts situated in Northern Portugal. Questionnaire reproducibility was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; 95% confidence interval) computed by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha.
The correlation coefficients were fair to good (ICC>0.4) for all statements (scale-items) regarding knowledge of and attitudes to antibiotic resistance, and ranged from fair to good to excellent for statements about situations in which pharmacists acknowledged that antibiotics were sometimes dispensed without a medical prescription (ICC>0.8). Cronbach's alpha for this section was 0.716.
The questionnaire designed in this study is valid and reliable in terms of content validity, face validity and reproducibility.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90470. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090470 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Use of antibiotics has been correlated with increasing rates of resistance. Pharmacists are ideally positioned as front line health care providers to limit indiscriminate antibiotic use and promote the safe and effective administration of these medications. Objective The aim of this project was to assess pharmacists' opinions relating to antibiotic utilization in the community setting. Setting Doha, Qatar. Method Community and primary care pharmacists were invited to participate in one of three focus groups or a semi-structured interview at Qatar University or at their site of employment. A total of 22 community and primary care pharmacists participated in this study. Interviews were facilitated using a focus group guide, were recorded, and later transcribed. Transcripts were reviewed for recurring themes and coded using Nvivo software for qualitative research. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' perceptions. Results Five major themes emerged from a series of focus groups and interviews. Themes which recurred across interview groups included: misconceptions and inappropriate practices by patients and healthcare providers, currently implemented strategies, perceived barriers, ways to overcome perceived barriers, and targets for improvement of antibiotic use in Qatar. The greatest need, as identified by pharmacists in this study was increased knowledge of the general population about appropriate antibiotic use through various educational interventions. Conclusion Pharmacists report a number of misconceptions and inappropriate practices relating to antibiotic use in Qatar by patients and healthcare providers. Education to improve knowledge of appropriate antibiotic use is needed. Despite recognition of these issues, barriers are preventing pharmacists from implementing strategies to improve antibiotic use in Qatar.
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 06/2014; 36(4). DOI:10.1007/s11096-014-9960-7 · 1.35 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.