"In addition, these MSCs differentiate in hepatocyte-like cells and secrete a variety of cytokines and growth factors that have both paracrine and autocrine activities. These secreted bioactive factors suppress the local immune system, inhibit fibrosis (scar formation) and apoptosis, enhance angiogenesis, and stimulate mitosis and differentiation of tissue-intrinsic reparative cells and stem cells . MSCs are promising candidates for the repair of tissues altered by radiation exposure, as described for skin regeneration [8, 9]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of the infusion of hMSCs for the correction of liver injuries, we performed total body radiation exposure of NOD/SCID mice. After irradiation, mir-27b level decreases in liver, increasing the directional migration of hMSCs by upregulating SDF1 α . A significant increase in plasmatic transaminases levels, apoptosis process in the liver vascular system, and in oxidative stress were observed. hMSC injection induced a decrease in transaminases levels and oxidative stress, a disappearance of apoptotic cells, and an increase in Nrf2, SOD gene expression, which might reduce ROS production in the injured liver. Engrafted hMSCs expressed cytokeratin CK18 and CK19 and AFP genes indicating possible hepatocyte differentiation. The presence of hMSCs expressing VEGF and Ang-1 in the perivascular region, associated with an increased expression of VEGFr1, r2 in the liver, can confer a role of secreting cells to hMSCs in order to maintain the endothelial function. To explain the benefits to the liver of hMSC engraftment, we find that hMSCs secreted NGF, HGF, and anti-inflammatory molecules IL-10, IL1-RA contributing to prevention of apoptosis, increasing cell proliferation in the liver which might correct liver dysfunction. MSCs are potent candidates to repair and protect healthy tissues against radiation damages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase "regenerative pharmacology" to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is "the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues." As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significance: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a disease of the developing lung that afflicts extreme preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Follow-up studies into adulthood show that BPD isn't merely a problem of the neonatal period, as it also may predispose to early-onset emphysema and poor lung function in later life. Recent advances: The increasing promise of bone marrow or umbilical cord derived-mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to repair neonatal and adult lung diseases, may for the first time offer the chance to make substantial strides in improving the outcome of extreme premature infants at risk of developing BPD. As more knowledge has been obtained on MSCs over the last decades, it has become clear that each organ has its own reservoir of endogenous MSCs, including the lung. Critical issues: We have only barely scratched the surface on what resident lung MSCs exactly are and what their role and function in lung development may be. Moreover, what happens to these putative repair cells in BPD when alveolar development goes awry and why do their counterparts from the bone marrow and umbilical cord succeed in restoring normal alveolar development when they themselves do not? Future directions: Much work remains to be done to validate lung MSCs, but with the high potential of MSC-based treatment for BPD and other lung diseases, a thorough understanding of the endogenous lung MSC will be pivotal to get to the bottom of these diseases.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.