Inserting Needles Into the Body: A Meta-Analysis of Brain Activity Associated With Acupuncture Needle Stimulation

Acupuncture and Meridian Science Research Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea
The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society (Impact Factor: 4.22). 02/2013; 14(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2012.11.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acupuncture is a therapeutic treatment that is defined as the insertion of needles into the body at specific points (ie, acupoints). Advances in functional neuroimaging have made it possible to study brain responses to acupuncture; however, previous studies have mainly concentrated on acupoint specificity. We wanted to focus on the functional brain responses that occur because of needle insertion into the body. An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was carried out to investigate common characteristics of brain responses to acupuncture needle stimulation compared to tactile stimulation. A total of 28 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, which consisted of 51 acupuncture and 10 tactile stimulation experiments, were selected for the meta-analysis. Following acupuncture needle stimulation, activation in the sensorimotor cortical network, including the insula, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, and primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, and deactivation in the limbic-paralimbic neocortical network, including the medial prefrontal cortex, caudate, amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex, and parahippocampus, were detected and assessed. Following control tactile stimulation, weaker patterns of brain responses were detected in areas similar to those stated above. The activation and deactivation patterns following acupuncture stimulation suggest that the hemodynamic responses in the brain simultaneously reflect the sensory, cognitive, and affective dimensions of pain. PERSPECTIVE: This article facilitates a better understanding of acupuncture needle stimulation and its effects on specific activity changes in different brain regions as well as its relationship to the multiple dimensions of pain. Future studies can build on this meta-analysis and will help to elucidate the clinically relevant therapeutic effects of acupuncture.

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Available from: Dong-Seon Chang, Aug 14, 2015
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    • "This demonstrates not only that the context of a treatment is important but also that pain induced by therapeutic tools might be associated with reward values because patients would have no reason to undergo painful treatments unless they believed that the expected value of reward (relief from the initial suffering or pain) outweighs the additional pain induced by the treatment . From a physiological point of view, inserting needles into the body is generally considered a painful stimulus, but from a therapeutic point of view, inserting needles into the body during acupuncture is known to result in various clinical and therapeutic effects, such as acupuncture analgesia [11] [12]. If acupuncture needling is delivered outside of a therapeutic context, we imagine that it would be considered a painful 'stimulus' for the patient, which might cause different physiological responses than acupuncture 'treatment' given in a therapeutic context. "
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