Understanding metabolic regulation and its influence on cell physiology.
ABSTRACT Metabolism impacts all cellular functions and plays a fundamental role in biology. In the last century, our knowledge of metabolic pathway architecture and the genomic landscape of disease has increased exponentially. Combined with these insights, advances in analytical methods for quantifying metabolites and systems approaches to analyze these data now provide powerful tools to study metabolic regulation. Here we review the diverse mechanisms cells use to adapt metabolism to specific physiological states and discuss how metabolic flux analyses can be applied to identify important regulatory nodes to understand normal and pathological cell physiology.
- SourceAvailable from: Anne N MurphyMolecular cell 11/2014; · 14.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Altered cellular bioenergetics and mitochondrial function are major features of several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Given this important link to human health, we sought to define proteins within mitochondria that are critical for maintaining homeostatic ATP levels. We screened an RNAi library targeting >1,000 nuclear-encoded genes whose protein products localize to the mitochondria in multiple metabolic conditions in order to examine their effects on cellular ATP levels. We identified a mechanism by which electron transport chain (ETC) perturbation under glycolytic conditions increased ATP production through enhanced glycolytic flux, thereby highlighting the cellular potential for metabolic plasticity. Additionally, we identified a mitochondrial adenylate kinase (AK4) that regulates cellular ATP levels and AMPK signaling and whose expression significantly correlates with glioma patient survival. This study maps the bioenergetic landscape of >1,000 mitochondrial proteins in the context of varied metabolic substrates and begins to link key metabolic genes with clinical outcome.Cell Reports 04/2014; 7(3). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.03.065 · 7.21 Impact Factor
Article: Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cancer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A mechanistic understanding of how mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell growth and tumorigenesis is emerging beyond Warburg as an area of research that is under-explored in terms of its significance for clinical management of cancer. Work discussed in this review focuses less on the Warburg effect and more on mitochondria and how dysfunctional mitochondria modulate cell cycle, gene expression, metabolism, cell viability, and other established aspects of cell growth and stress responses. There is increasing evidence that key oncogenes and tumor suppressors modulate mitochondrial dynamics through important signaling pathways and that mitochondrial mass and function vary between tumors and individuals but the significance of these events for cancer are not fully appreciated. We explore the interplay between key molecules involved in mitochondrial fission and fusion and in apoptosis, as well as in mitophagy, biogenesis, and spatial dynamics of mitochondria and consider how these distinct mechanisms are coordinated in response to physiological stresses such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Importantly, we examine how deregulation of these processes in cancer has knock on effects for cell proliferation and growth. We define major forms of mitochondrial dysfunction and address the extent to which the functional consequences of such dysfunction can be determined and exploited for cancer diagnosis and treatment.Frontiers in Oncology 01/2013; 3:292. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2013.00292