Advantages of early cholecystectomy in clinical practice of a terciary care center

Health Research Institute, San Carlos Clinical Hospital, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid 28040, Spain. .
Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international: HBPD INT (Impact Factor: 1.17). 02/2013; 12(1):87-93. DOI: 10.1016/S1499-3872(13)60011-9
Source: PubMed


Despite a number of studies show the superiority of early over delayed cholecystectomy in the treatment of acute cholecystitis, there is still controversy over the time for intervention. This study aimed to assess the use of early versus delayed cholecystectomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in terms of complications, conversion to open surgery and mean hospital stay.
We collected patients with acute cholecystitis treated at a referral center for a year, and retrospectively analyzed the chosen therapeutic approach, the percentage of conversion of early cholecystectomy to open surgery, appearance of surgical complications, and mean hospital stay.
The study included 117 patients, 44 women and 73 men, who had a mean age of 67.36+/-15.74 years. Early cholecystectomy was chosen in 31 (26.5%) and delayed cholecystectomy in 74 patients (63.2%). Of the 74 patients, 28 (37.8%) required emergency performance of delayed cholecystectomy, and 19 (25.7%) had not undergone surgery by the end of the study. While no differences were observed between early and delayed cholecystectomy in terms of surgical complications and conversion to open surgery, mean hospital stay was nevertheless significantly shorter in the early versus the delayed cholecystectomy group (8.32+/-4.98 vs 15.96+/-8.89 days).
Under the routine working conditions of a hospital that is neither specially dedicated to the surgical treatment of acute cholecystitis nor provided with specific management guidelines, early cholecystectomy can reduce the hospital stay without increase of the conversion rate or complications.

18 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Published guidelines recommend early cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in the elderly. Alternatively, percutaneous cholecystostomy can be used in compromised patients. We reviewed 806 elderly patients diagnosed with biliary disease retrospectively identified through billing and diagnosis codes. Two hundred sixty-five patients with histologically documented acute cholecystitis were selected. Initially, 75 patients had percutaneous cholecystostomy (Group 1), 64 (24 % underwent interval cholecystectomy, 74 (28 %) early (Group 2), and 127 (48 %) delayed cholecystectomy (Group 3). Group 1 was more likely to have American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores of 4 when compared to those in Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.04). No difference existed among the groups when patients with an ASA of 4 were excluded: conversion rates (11 %), biliary leak, bowel injury, need for reoperation, or 30 days mortality. Patients in Group 1 and in Group 3 were five times (p = 0.04) and four times (p = 0.06) more likely, respectively, than those in Group 2 to have recurrent episodes of pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and cholangitis. Patients were more likely to have delayed cholecystectomy after initial antibiotic therapy or cholecystostomy without the benefit of a lower conversion rate when compared to the early group, but they had higher recurrent episodes of cholecystitis/pancreatitis or cholangitis.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 11/2013; 144(5). DOI:10.1007/s11605-013-2341-z · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that same-admission delayed cholecystectomy is a safe option. Patients with diabetes have been shown to have less favourable outcomes after cholecystectomy, but the impact of timing of operation for acute cholecystitis during the same admission is unknown. This was a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis between 2004 and 2010, from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patients with no significant co-morbidities (American Society of Anesthesiologists grade I or II) were included. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to match patients with diabetes with those who did not have diabetes, in a ratio of 1 : 3, to ensure homogeneity of the two groups. Logistic regression models were applied to adjust for differences between early (within 24 h) and delayed (24 h or more) surgical treatment. The primary outcome was development of local and systemic infectious complications. Secondary outcomes were duration of operation and length of hospital stay. From a total of 2892 patients, 144 patients with diabetes were matched with 432 without diabetes by PSM. Delaying cholecystectomy for at least 24 h after admission in patients with diabetes was associated with significantly higher odds of developing surgical-site infections (adjusted odds ratio 4·11, 95 per cent confidence interval 1·11 to 15·22; P = 0·034) and a longer hospital stay. For patients with no diabetes, however, delaying cholecystectomy had no impact on complications or length of hospital stay. Patients with diabetes who undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy 24 h or more after admission may have an increased risk of postoperative surgical-site infection and a longer hospital stay than those undergoing surgery within 24 h of admission.
    British Journal of Surgery 01/2014; 101(2). DOI:10.1002/bjs.9382 · 5.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence in support of performing early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for acute cholecystitis. However, the definition of early LC varies from 0 through 10 days depending on the research protocol. The optimum time to perform early LC is still unclear. To determine whether outcomes after early LC for acute cholecystitis vary depending on time from presentation to surgery and to determine the optimum time to perform LC for acute cholecystitis. We performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for 2005 through 2009. The population-based sample included 95 523 adults (18 years and older) who underwent LC within 10 days of presentation for acute cholecystitis. Patients were categorized and analyzed in 2 ways based on length of time from presentation to surgery. First, patients were categorized into 3 groups: 0 through 1 day, 2 through 5 days, and 6 through 10 days. Second, we compared outcomes for each incremental preoperative day (days 0-5). Outcomes of interest were mortality, length of stay, complications, and cost. Propensity score matching and generalized linear modeling were used. The hypothesis being tested was formulated after data collection was complete. A total of 95 523 patients were selected. After matching the 3 groups based on propensity scores, patients who underwent surgery during days 2 through 5 and days 6 through 10 had increasingly worse outcomes when compared with those undergoing surgery on days 0 through 1. The odds of mortality were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.00-1.58) and 1.93 (95% CI, 1.38-2.68), and the odds of postoperative infections were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.69-1.12) and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.05-2.23) for days 2 through 5 and days 6 through 10, respectively. Adjusted mean hospital cost increased from $8974 (days 0-1) to $17 745 (days 6-10). Analysis by each incremental day revealed the optimal time of surgery to be within the first 48 hours of presentation. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed within 2 days of presentation of acute cholecystitis yielded the best outcomes and lowest costs. Although causality could not be established, delaying LC was associated with more complications, higher mortality, and higher costs.
    12/2014; 150(2). DOI:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.2339