Safe and Effective Use of a Glycemic Control Protocol for Neonates in a Cardiac ICU*
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE:: To investigate the safety and efficacy of a hyperglycemia protocol in neonates with critical cardiac illness. Neonates are often regarded as high risk for hypoglycemia while receiving continuous insulin infusions and thus have been excluded from some clinical trials. DESIGN:: A retrospective review. SETTING:: A pediatric cardiac ICU in a tertiary academic center. INTERVENTIONS:: Neonates with critical cardiac illness who developed hyperglycemia were placed on an insulin-hyperglycemia protocol at the attending physician's discretion. Insulin infusions were titrated based on frequent blood glucose monitoring. MEASUREMENTS:: Critical illness hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose > 140 mg/dL. Hypoglycemia was defined as moderate (≤ 60 mg/dL) or severe (≤ 40 mg/dL). Initiating blood glucose, lowest blood glucose during insulin infusion, doses of insulin, duration of insulin, and time to blood glucose < 140 mg/dL were evaluated. MAIN RESULTS:: A total of 44 patients were placed on the protocol between January 2009 and October 2011. The majority of insulin infusions were initiated in the early postoperative period (33 of 44, 75%). Moderate hypoglycemia occurred in two patients (4.5%), with blood glucose levels of 49 and 53 mg/dL. No episodes of severe hypoglycemia occurred. A total of 345 discrete blood glucose levels were analyzed; two of these being < 60 mg/dL (0.58%). Mean blood glucose prior to starting insulin was 252 ± 45 mg/dL and time until euglycemia was 6.1 ± 3.9 hrs. The mean duration of insulin infusion was 24.6 ± 38.7 hrs, mean peak dose was 0.10 ± 0.05 units/kg/hr, and mean insulin dose was 0.06 ± 0.02 units/kg/hr. For postoperative patients, mean time after bypass until onset of hyperglycemia was 2.2 ± 2.6 hrs. CONCLUSIONS:: A glycemic control protocol can safely and effectively be applied to neonates with critical cardiac disease. Neonates with critical cardiac illness should be included in clinical trials evaluating the benefits of glycemic control.
- SourceAvailable from: dialogues-cvm.orgCurrent Problems in Cardiology 03/1994; 19(2):59-113. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High blood glucose concentration may increase risk of death and poor outcome after acute myocardial infarction. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the risk of in-hospital mortality or congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction in patients with and without diabetes who had stress hyperglycaemia on admission. We did two searches of MEDLINE for English-language articles published from 1966 to October, 1998, a computerised search of Science Citation Index from 1980 to September, 1998, and manual searches of bibliographies. Two searchers identified all cohort studies or clinical trials reporting in-hospital mortality or rates of congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction in relation to glucose concentration on admission. We compared the relative risks of in-hospital mortality and congestive heart failure in hyperglycaemic and normoglycaemic patients with and without diabetes. 14 articles describing 15 studies were identified. Patients without diabetes who had glucose concentrations more than or equal to range 6.1-8.0 mmol/L had a 3.9-fold (95% CI 2.9-5.4) higher risk of death than patients without diabetes who had lower glucose concentrations. Glucose concentrations higher than values in the range of 8.0-10.0 mmol/L on admission were associated with increased risk of congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock in patients without diabetes. In patients with diabetes who had glucose concentrations more than or equal to range 10.0-11.0 mmol/L the risk of death was moderately increased (relative risk 1.7 [1.2-2.4]). Stress hyperglycaemia with myocardial infarction is associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with and without diabetes; the risk of congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock is also increased in patients without diabetes.The Lancet 04/2000; 355(9206):773-8. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are common in critically ill patients, even if they have not previously had diabetes. Whether the normalization of blood glucose levels with insulin therapy improves the prognosis for such patients is not known. We performed a prospective, randomized, controlled study involving adults admitted to our surgical intensive care unit who were receiving mechanical ventilation. On admission, patients were randomly assigned to receive intensive insulin therapy (maintenance of blood glucose at a level between 80 and 110 mg per deciliter [4.4 and 6.1 mmol per liter]) or conventional treatment (infusion of insulin only if the blood glucose level exceeded 215 mg per deciliter [11.9 mmol per liter] and maintenance of glucose at a level between 180 and 200 mg per deciliter [10.0 and 11.1 mmol per liter]). At 12 months, with a total of 1548 patients enrolled, intensive insulin therapy reduced mortality during intensive care from 8.0 percent with conventional treatment to 4.6 percent (P<0.04, with adjustment for sequential analyses). The benefit of intensive insulin therapy was attributable to its effect on mortality among patients who remained in the intensive care unit for more than five days (20.2 percent with conventional treatment, as compared with 10.6 percent with intensive insulin therapy, P=0.005). The greatest reduction in mortality involved deaths due to multiple-organ failure with a proven septic focus. Intensive insulin therapy also reduced overall in-hospital mortality by 34 percent, bloodstream infections by 46 percent, acute renal failure requiring dialysis or hemofiltration by 41 percent, the median number of red-cell transfusions by 50 percent, and critical-illness polyneuropathy by 44 percent, and patients receiving intensive therapy were less likely to require prolonged mechanical ventilation and intensive care. Intensive insulin therapy to maintain blood glucose at or below 110 mg per deciliter reduces morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients in the surgical intensive care unit.New England Journal of Medicine 11/2001; 345(19):1359-67. · 51.66 Impact Factor