Early-life cockroach allergen and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposures predict cockroach sensitization among inner-city children
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Sensitization to cockroach is one of the strongest identified risk factors for greater asthma morbidity in low-income urban communities; however, the timing of exposures relevant to the development of sensitization has not been elucidated fully. Furthermore, exposure to combustion byproducts, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can augment the development of allergic sensitization. OBJECTIVE: We sought to test the hypotheses that domestic cockroach allergen measured prenatally would predict cockroach sensitization in early childhood and that this association would be greater for children exposed to higher PAH concentrations. METHODS: Dominican and African American pregnant women living in New York City were enrolled. In the third trimester expectant mothers wore personal air samplers for measurement of 8 nonvolatile PAHs and the semivolatile PAH pyrene, and dust was collected from homes for allergen measurement. Glutathione-S-transferase μ 1 (GSTM1) gene polymorphisms were measured in children. Allergen-specific IgE levels were measured from the children at ages 2, 3, 5, and 7 years. RESULTS: Bla g 2 in prenatal kitchen dust predicted cockroach sensitization at the ages of 5 to 7 years (adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.15; P = .001; n = 349). The association was observed only among children with greater than (RR, 1.22; P = .001) but not less than (RR, 1.07; P = .24) the median sum of 8 nonvolatile PAH levels. The association was most pronounced among children with higher PAH levels and null for the GSTM1 gene (RR, 1.54; P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to cockroach allergen was associated with a greater risk of allergic sensitization. This risk was increased by exposure to nonvolatile PAHs, with children null for the GSTM1 mutation particularly vulnerable.
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ABSTRACT: Sensitization to environmental allergens remains one of the strongest risk factors for asthma, and there is likely a genetic basis. We sought to identify genetic determinants for the development of allergic sensitization to environmental allergens, particularly cockroach allergen, in early childhood. A total of 631 children with the information about genotypic data on 895 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 179 candidate genes were selected from an existing dataset (Boston Birth Cohort). Genetic analysis was performed for allergic sensitizations among all subjects and sub-population, Black/African, respectively. Eight SNPs in seven genes showed significant association with allergic sensitization with P < 0.05, including two top SNPs, rs7851969 in JAK2 (P = 0.003) and rs11739089 in CNOT6 (P = 0.008). When analyses were specifically performed for cockroach sensitization, 16 SNPs in 13 genes showed P < 0.05, including five genes with SNPs at P < 0.01 (JAK1, JAK3, IL5RA, FCER1A, and ADAM33). Particularly, haplotype analyses demonstrated that multiple-haplotypes in FCER1A were significantly associated with cockroach sensitization with the strongest association for a 2-marker haplotype (rs6665683T-rs12136904T, P = 0.001). Furthermore, SNP rs6665683 was marginally associated with the levels of cockroach allergen specific IgE. When a similar analysis was performed for house dust mite, four SNPs in three genes (JAK2, MAML1, and NOD1) had P < 0.01. Of these, JAK2 appeared to be an only gene showing association across the sensitizations we analyzed. Some of findings were further validated when analysis was limited to black population. Our study identified several loci that may confer the susceptibility to allergic sensitization, and suggested that sensitization to allergens may depend on their unique loci.11/2014; DOI:10.1002/iid3.38
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ABSTRACT: Asthma is the most common chronic illness in children living in developed countries and the leading cause of childhood hospitalization and school absenteeism. Prevalence rates of asthma are increasing and show disparities across gender, geographic regions, and ethnic/racial groups. Common risk factors for developing childhood asthma include exposure to tobacco smoke, previous allergic reactions, a family history of asthma, allergic rhinitis or eczema, living in an urban environment, obesity and lack of physical exercise, severe lower respiratory tract infections, and male gender. Asthma exacerbation in children can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens (e.g., pollen, dust mites, and animal dander), viral and bacterial infections, exercise, and exposure to airway irritants. Recent studies have shown that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a major component of fine particulate matter from combustion sources, is also associated with onset of asthma, and increasing asthmatic symptoms. In this paper, we review sources of childhood PAH exposure and the association between airborne PAH exposure and childhood asthma prevalence and exacerbation.European Journal of Epidemiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10654-015-9988-6 · 5.15 Impact Factor
Article: Inner City Asthma[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The inner city has long been recognized as an area of high asthma morbidity and mortality. A wide range of factors interact to create this environment. These factors include well-recognized asthma risk factors that are not specific to the inner city, the structure and delivery of health care, the location and function of the urban environment, and social inequities. In this article, these facets are reviewed, and successful and unsuccessful interventions are discussed, to understand what is needed to solve this problem. Published by Elsevier Inc.Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America 02/2015; 35(1):101-114. DOI:10.1016/j.iac.2014.09.006 · 2.22 Impact Factor