Carotid Artery Stenting–Induced Hemodynamic Instability
ABSTRACT Purpose : To present a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the incidence of carotid artery stenting (CAS)-induced hemodynamic instability (HI) and to explore differences in periprocedural risk among patients with and without CAS-associated HI. Methods : Multiple electronic health databases were searched for all articles published between January 2000 and December 2011 describing CAS-associated hemodynamic instability. Twenty-seven studies with a total of 4204 patients were analyzed, placing emphasis on the HI incidence and its correlation with postprocedure morbidity and mortality. A meta-regression analysis was conducted to investigate the role of potential meaningful modifiers upon HI. Results : The meta-analysis for overall HI rate showed a pooled proportion of 39.4%. The pooled estimate for hypotension was 12.1%, 12.2% for bradycardia, and 12.5% for both hypotension and bradycardia. Persistent HI was found to occur in a pooled rate of 19.2%. No statistically significant differences were found between patients with and without HI after CAS with respect to death, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or major adverse events. The meta-regression analysis revealed statistically significant associations of mean age with HI, of ≤10-mm distance between the carotid bifurcation and the site of minimum lumen diameter with bradycardia, and of prior ipsilateral CEA with persistent HI. Conclusion : CAS-induced HI occurs in a considerable percentage of patients without increasing the perioperative risk. However, applying the appropriate prophylactic measures and strictly monitoring blood pressure and heart rate during the procedure and immediately after should be encouraged for early recognition and correction of these hemodynamic disturbances.
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ABSTRACT: Refractory and fatal hemodynamic depression remarkably occurred eight hours after left carotid artery stenting in a 62-year-old male who had no hemodynamic instability till then; possible contributory factors were pre-existing moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction and new-onset complete heart block caused by vasopressor-induced sympathetic stimulation in the presence of covert distal conduction system disease.Indian Heart Journal 10/2014; 66(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ihj.2014.10.403 · 0.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Percutaneous Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS) has emerged as a less invasive alternative to carotid endarterectomy for the treatment of carotid atherosclerotic disease. The main risk of CAS is the occurrence of neuro-vascular complications, however Carotid Artery Stenting-related Dysautonomia (CAS-D) (hypertension, hypotension, and bradycardia) is the most frequently reported problem occurring in the periprocedural period. Alterations in autonomic homeostasis result from baroreceptor stimulation, which occurs particularly at the time of balloon inflation in the region of the carotid sinus. The response can be profound enough to induce asystole or even complete cessation of postganglionic sympathetic nerve activity. Frequency and factors predisposing a patient to CAS-D has been investigated in several studies; however, there are significant discrepancies in results among reports. Lack of consistent findings may arise from employing different methods and definitions, as well as other factors discussed in detail in the current review. Furthermore, a correlation of CAS-D with short and long-term outcomes has been investigated only in small and mostly retrospective studies, explaining why its prognostic significance remains uncertain. In the current manuscript, we have focused on risk factors, pathophysiology and management of periprocedural autonomic dysfunction. As there is no standardized approach to the treatment of CAS-D, we present an algorithm for the periprocedural management of patients undergoing CAS. The proposed algorithm was developed based on our procedural experience, as well as data from the available literature. The Yale Algorithm was successfully implemented at our institution and we are currently collecting data for short and long term safety. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2015; 85(2). DOI:10.1002/ccd.25622 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While patient eligibility for carotid artery stenting (CAS) is well established, the intraoperative technique remains widely varied. The decision to perform poststent ballooning (PSB) is operator-dependent and often influenced by the interpretation of poststent angiography. While visually creating a greater luminal diameter, it is unclear whether PSB has immediate risks or long-term benefits. The purpose of this report is to determine whether PSB has any effects on periprocedural hemodynamic stability. A retrospective analysis of all patients that underwent CAS between 2005 and 2012 at a tertiary care center was performed. The primary end point was hemodynamic instability, defined as bradycardia (a heart rate of <60 beats/min) or hypotension (systolic blood pressure of <90 mm Hg) during the intraoperative or postoperative period. Binary logistic regression model was performed to determine the effect of PSB on the occurrence of hemodynamic instability, adjusting for patient's age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, recent myocardial infarction, previous carotid endarterectomy, high-risk status, and symptomatic status. A total of 103 (51 men and 52 women) patients underwent placement of a unilateral carotid stent between 2005 and 2012 at our institution. All patients underwent prestent dilatation. However, 70% (n = 72) underwent PSB whereas 30% (n = 31) did not. PSB was a significant predictor of hemodynamic depression (odds ratio [OR], 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-11; P < .01). Symptomatic status, recent myocardial infarction, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease were associated with a length of stay exceeding 24 hours postoperatively (OR, 6.6; P < .01, OR, 6.1; P < .01, OR, 5.4; P = .04, and OR, 9.3; P < .01, respectively). At follow-up, 97% (83/86) stents were patent. Two stent stenoses occurred in the group that received PSB, while one stent stenosis occurred in the group that did not receive PSB. PSB increases the risk of intra- or postoperative hemodynamic depression in CAS and might increase the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. Given the added complications and the lack of evidence supporting long term patency, PSB should be only selectively used.Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 12/2013; 59(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jvs.2013.09.027 · 2.98 Impact Factor