Extensive Transcript Diversity and Novel Upstream Open Reading Frame Regulation in Yeast

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520.
G3-Genes Genomes Genetics (Impact Factor: 2.51). 02/2013; 3(2):343-52. DOI: 10.1534/g3.112.003640
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To understand the diversity of transcripts in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) we analyzed the transcriptional landscapes for cells grown under 18 different environmental conditions. Each sample was analyzed using RNA-sequencing, and a total of 670,446,084 uniquely mapped reads and 377,263 poly-adenylated end tags were produced. Consistent with previous studies, we find that the majority of yeast genes are expressed under one or more different conditions. By directly comparing the 5' and 3' ends of the transcribed regions, we find extensive differences in transcript ends across many conditions, especially those of stationary phase, growth in grape juice, and salt stimulation, suggesting differential choice of transcription start and stop sites is pervasive in yeast. Relative to the exponential growth condition (i.e., YPAD), transcripts differing at the 5' ends and 3' ends are predicted to differ in their annotated start codon in 21 genes and their annotated stop codon in 63 genes. Many (431) upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are found in alternate 5' ends and are significantly enriched in transcripts produced during the salt response. Mutational analysis of five genes with uORFs revealed that two sets of uORFs increase the expression of a reporter construct, indicating a role in activation which had not been reported previously, whereas two other uORFs decreased expression. In addition, RNA binding protein motifs are statistically enriched for alternate ends under many conditions. Overall, these results demonstrate enormous diversity of transcript ends, and that this heterogeneity is regulated under different environmental conditions. Moreover, transcript end diversity has important biological implications for the regulation of gene expression. In addition, our data also serve as a valuable resource for the scientific community.


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