Crabohydrate-related inhibitors of dengue virus entry.
ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV), which is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans. The virus entry process mediated through host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue disease. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying virus entry is essential for an understanding of dengue pathology and for the development of effective new anti-dengue agents. DENV binds to its receptor molecules mediated through a viral envelope (E) protein, followed by incorporation of the virus-receptor complex inside cells. The fusion between incorporated virus particles and host endosome membrane under acidic conditions is mediated through the function of DENV E protein. Carbohydrate molecules, such as sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and glycosphingolipids, and carbohydrate-recognition proteins, termed lectins, inhibit virus entry. This review focuses on carbohydrate-derived entry inhibitors, and also introduces functionally related compounds with similar inhibitory mechanisms against DENV entry.
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic cell specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3) grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin present on the surface of dendritic cells, mediates the initial interaction of dendritic cells with T cells by binding to ICAM-3. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR, a related receptor found on the endothelium of liver sinusoids, placental capillaries, and lymph nodes, bind to oligosaccharides that are present on the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), an interaction that strongly promotes viral infection of T cells. Crystal structures of carbohydrate-recognition domains of DC-SIGN and of DC-SIGNR bound to oligosaccharide, in combination with binding studies, reveal that these receptors selectively recognize endogenous high-mannose oligosaccharides and may represent a new avenue for developing HIV prophylactics.Science 01/2002; 294(5549):2163-6. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dengue virus is an emerging global health threat. Its major envelope glycoprotein, E, mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. A crystal structure of the soluble ectodomain of E from dengue virus type 2 reveals a hydrophobic pocket lined by residues that influence the pH threshold for fusion. The pocket, which accepts a hydrophobic ligand, opens and closes through a conformational shift in a beta-hairpin at the interface between two domains. These features point to a structural pathway for the fusion-activating transition and suggest a strategy for finding small-molecule inhibitors of dengue and other flaviviruses.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2003; 100(12):6986-91. · 9.74 Impact Factor
Article: Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We undertook a comprehensive phylogenetic study to establish the genetic relationship among the viruses of the genus Flavivirus and to compare the classification based on molecular phylogeny with the existing serologic method. By using a combination of quantitative definitions (bootstrap support level and the pairwise nucleotide sequence identity), the viruses could be classified into clusters, clades, and species. Our phylogenetic study revealed for the first time that from the putative ancestor two branches, non-vector and vector-borne virus clusters, evolved and from the latter cluster emerged tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters. Provided that the theory of arthropod association being an acquired trait was correct, pairwise nucleotide sequence identity among these three clusters provided supporting data for a possibility that the non-vector cluster evolved first, followed by the separation of tick-borne and mosquito-borne virus clusters in that order. Clades established in our study correlated significantly with existing antigenic complexes. We also resolved many of the past taxonomic problems by establishing phylogenetic relationships of the antigenically unclassified viruses with the well-established viruses and by identifying synonymous viruses.Journal of Virology 02/1998; 72(1):73-83. · 5.08 Impact Factor