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Maternal Depression and Early Positive Parenting Predict Future Conduct Problems in Young Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Approximately 20% to 50% of children and 44% to 50% of adolescents with ADHD

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Developmental Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.21). 01/2007; 43(1):70-83. DOI: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.70

ABSTRACT Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for adverse outcomes such as
substance abuse and criminality, particularly if they develop conduct problems. Little is known about
early predictors of the developmental course of conduct problems among children with ADHD, however.
Parental psychopathology and parenting were assessed in 108 children who first met Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) criteria for ADHD at 4–7 years old. When demographic
variables and baseline ADHD and conduct problems were controlled, maternal depression predicted
conduct problems 2–8 years following the initial assessment, whereas positive parenting during the
structured parent– child interaction task predicted fewer future conduct problems. These findings suggest
that maternal depression is a risk factor, whereas early positive parenting is a protective factor, for the
developmental course of conduct problems among children with ADHD.

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