Total Ankle Arthroplasty With Combined Calcaneal and Metatarsal Osteotomies for Treatment of Ankle Osteoarthritis With Accompanying Cavovarus Deformities: Early Results
ABSTRACT Background: Our study evaluated the short-term clinical and radiographic results of total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) with combined bony reconstructions for treatment of end-stage ankle osteoarthritis with accompanying cavovarus/hindfoot varus deformities. Methods: This study included 8 patients (10 ankles) with ankle osteoarthritis (OA) who were treated by TAA with combined calcaneal and metatarsal osteotomies between September 2004 and June 2010 and were followed an average of 17.9 months (12-43 months). Visual analogue scale (VAS) score, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, radiographic measurements, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Results: The average patient age was 66.2 years (range, 55-76 years). Eighteen bony reconstruction procedures such as lateral sliding calcaneal osteotomy (n = 9) and first metatarsal dorsiflexion osteotomy (n = 4) were performed in addition to TAA. VAS pain score improved from an average of 8.8 (range, 6-10) preoperatively to an average of 2.4 (range, 0-7) (P < .05), and the AOFAS score improved from 36.9 (range, 14-71) preoperatively to 89.3 (range, 68-100) (P < .05). Ninety percent of the patients were satisfied with the results. Radiographically, the tibiocalcaneal angle (TCA) improved from a preoperative average of 19.0 degrees (range, 13-23 degrees) to 0.2 degrees (range, -5.4 to 2.8 degrees), the tibial axis-talar dome angle (TA-TDA) improved from a preoperative average of 15.6 degrees (range, 11.1-18.0 degrees) to 3.3 degrees (range, 1.7-5.6 degrees), and the talar dome-ground surface angle (TD-GSA) improved from a preoperative average of 21.2 degrees (range, 15.4-27.5 degrees) to 5.1 degrees (range, 1.8-10.2 degrees) (P < .05). Conclusion: We found that it was occasionally necessary to perform combined calcaneal and metatarsal osteotomies with TAA in order to successfully treat ankle OA with an accompanying cavovarus/varus deformity. The TD-GSA and TCA were also found to be important radiographic parameters in assessing varus ankles. Level of Evidence: IV, retrospective case series.
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ABSTRACT: Trauma, such as ankle fractures, has been the major etiology of ankle arthritis. It has been reported that 70-80% of ankle arthritis cases are due to lateral ankle instability and post-traumatic ankle arthritis. Ankle arthrodesis is the gold standard for end-stage ankle arthritis treatment, but it restricts ankle motion and leads to adjacent joint arthritis in the long term. Low tibial osteotomy is indicated for unicompartmental ankle osteoarthritis (OA) with varus/valgus deformity to realign the malalignment and redistribute the localized tibial plafond and malleolar pressure upon the talus and relieve ankle pain. Ankle distraction arthroplasty is another option for young patients with early ankle OA to widen the ankle joint space and decrease pain. Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is a viable surgical alternative for end-stage ankle OA to relieve ankle pain while preserving ankle motion. Recently, a 3-component total ankle system has been predominant, and the outcomes and survival of TAA have improved somewhat. Prospective comparative studies on ankle arthrodesis and TAA should be performed in the future, especially with critical evaluation of complications. Ankle arthrodesis and TAA are 2 major surgical options for end-stage ankle arthritis, but research on other possible alternatives for early stage OA should be performed in the future.Journal of the Korean Medical Association 01/2013; 56(10):908. DOI:10.5124/jkma.2013.56.10.908 · 0.18 Impact Factor