Effect of Various Hallux Valgus Reconstruction on Sesamoid Location: A Radiographic Study

1Department of Orthopedics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
Foot & Ankle International (Impact Factor: 1.51). 02/2013; 34(1):99-103. DOI: 10.1177/1071100712464356
Source: PubMed


Background: The correction of sesamoid subluxation is an important component of hallux valgus reconstruction with some surgeons feeling that the sesamoids can be pulled back under the first metatarsal head when imbricating the medial capsule during surgery. The purpose of this study was to radiographically assess the effect of an osteotomy on sesamoid location relative to the second metatarsal. Methods: This is a retrospective radiographic study review of 165 patients with hallux valgus treated with reconstructive osteotomies. Patients were included if they underwent a scarf or basilar osteotomy for hallux valgus but were excluded if they had inflammatory arthropathy or lesser metatarsal osteotomy. A modified McBride soft tissue procedure was performed in conjunction with the basilar and scarf osteotomies. Each patient's preoperative and postoperative radiographs were evaluated for hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal 1-2 angle, tibial sesamoid classification, and lateral sesamoid location relative to the second metatarsal. Result: The greatest correction of both hallux valgus and intermetatrsal 1-2 angle was achieved in basilar osteotomies (20.6 degrees and 9.7 degrees, respectively), then scarf osteotomies (14.4 degrees and 8.7 degrees, respectively). Basilar and scarf osteotomies both corrected medial sesamoid subluxation relative to the first metatarsal head an average of 2-3 classification stages. All osteotomies had minimal lateral sesamoid location change relative to the second metatarsal. Conclusion: The majority of sesamoid correction correlated with the intermetatarsal 1-2 correction. The concept that medial capsular plication pulls the sesamoids beneath the first metatarsal (ie, changes the location of the sesamoids relative to the second metatarsal) was not supported by our results. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective case series.

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    ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether hallux valgus displaces the sesamoid bones laterally away from a stationary first metatarsal or whether the first metatarsal head is displaced medially from the stationary sesamoids, which remain in position relative to the rest of the forefoot. We reviewed weightbearing radiographs in the dorsal plantar view of 128 consecutive patients (149 feet) seen over 2 months in 2014. Of these, 82 feet (55%) had a hallux valgus angle of >15° (hallux valgus group) and 67 feet (45%) had an angle of no more than 15° (control group). We measured the absolute distances from the center of the lateral sesamoid and the first metatarsal head to the long axis of the second metatarsal. Next, the relative distances, defined as the ratio of these 2 absolute distances to the length of the second metatarsal, were calculated to adjust for foot size. Both the absolute and the relative distances from the center of the first metatarsal head to the second metatarsal differed significantly between the 2 groups and correlated positively with the hallux valgus angle and first intermetatarsal angle. However, neither the absolute nor the relative distance to the lateral sesamoid bone differed significantly between the groups, nor did they correlate with either of the 2 angles. Thus, despite medial shifting of the first metatarsal in hallux valgus, the lateral sesamoid retains its relationship to the second metatarsal in transverse plane. Its apparent lateral movement is a radiographic misinterpretation. Awareness of this misinterpretation should improve the success of corrective surgery.
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