Association Between Metabolic Syndrome and Periodontitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
ABSTRACT Background:Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontal diseases (PDs). The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the existence and magnitude of this association.Materials and Methods:A systematic search of the literature was conducted looking for case-control, cross-sectional, cohort studies and population surveys including patients with measures of MetS and PD. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane library databases were used for the search by 2 independent reviewers. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association for coexistence of MetS and PD.Results:A total of 20 studies were included in the review, from an initial search of 3486 titles. Only 1 study reported longitudinal data on the onset of MetS components in association with periodontal measures. However, several studies investigated coexistence. A random effects meta-analysis showed that the presence of MetS is associated with the presence of periodontitis in a total of 36 337 subjects (odds ratio = 1.71; 95% confidence interval = 1.42 to 2.03). When only studies with "secure" diagnoses were included (n = 16 405), the magnitude of association increased (odds ratio = 2.09; 95% confidence interval = 1.28 to 3.44). Moderate heterogeneity was detected (I(2) = 53.6%; P = .004).Conclusions:This review presents clear evidence for an association between MetS and periodontitis. The direction of the association and factors influencing it should be investigated by longitudinal and treatment studies. Periodontal diagnostic procedures should be routinely carried out in MetS patients.
SourceAvailable from: Miki Ojima[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Epidemiological findings regarding the relationship between decayed teeth (DT) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are scarce. We evaluated the relationship of DT with MetS, obesity, and MetS components in early middle-aged male Japanese employees.Methods: We cross-sectionally analyzed dental and medical health checkup results from a total of 4716 participants aged 42 or 46 years. Logistic regression models were employed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for age, breakfast consumption frequency, drinking habits, smoking status, and physical activity.Results: Significant differences in the prevalence of MetS, obesity determined by body mass index, and the components of MetS between participating men with and without DT were detected (all P < 0.01). The adjusted OR of MetS was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.14-1.74) for those with 1 or 2 DT, and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.28-2.16) for those with ≥3 DT (P for trend = 0.01), and this significant relationship was observed even in those without periodontal pocket formation (P for trend = 0.03) or missing teeth (P for trend = 0.02). DT was significantly related to overweight/obesity and the MetS components of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, with adjusted ORs of 1.35 (95% CI, 1.19-1.53), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.07-1.39), 1.18 (95% CI, 1.03-1.34), and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.13-1.56), respectively. In addition, even in non-overweight/non-obese men, DT was found to be related to dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, though with marginal significance (P < 0.05).Conclusions: Our findings suggest that having DT is related to MetS in early middle-aged Japanese men directly and through obesity and is independent of health behaviors, periodontal condition, and tooth loss.Journal of Epidemiology 01/2015; 25(3). DOI:10.2188/jea.JE20140132 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AimObjective of this study was to investigate whether the response to periodontal treatment differs among obese, overweight or normal-weight patients.Materials and Methods Both randomized and non-randomized studies were identified from searches up to July 2013. Risk of bias was assessed with the Downs-Black checklist, the Cochrane tool, and the GRADE framework. Quantitative synthesis was conducted with random-effects meta-analyses in subgroups for systemically healthy and diabetic patients.ResultsA total of 15 studies including 867 patients were included. No significant difference was found for any clinical periodontal parameter between overweight/obese and normal-weight patients. Periodontal treatment in systemically healthy overweight/obese patients was associated with higher decrease of TNFα levels (1 study) and higher decrease of HbA1c levels (1 study) compared to systemically healthy normal-weight patients. Contrary to diabetic normal-weight patients, periodontal treatment in diabetic overweight/obese patients was associated with an increase in adiponectin levels (2 studies) and a decrease in leptin levels (2 studies). However, the quality of existing evidence is low due to inconsistency, imprecision and lack of studies.Conclusions Whereas no difference was found in clinical periodontal parameters, significant differences in inflammatory or metabolic parameters were found between overweight/obese and normal-weight patients, but existing evidence is weak.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 01/2015; 42(3). DOI:10.1111/jcpe.12365 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical studies have shown that metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with increased risk of developing periodontitis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since it is known that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathways play a crucial role in periodontitis, we hypothesized that MetS enhances LPS-induced periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss. In this study, we induced MetS in C57BL/6 mice by feeding them high-fat diet (HFD), and we induced periodontitis by periodontal injection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans LPS. We found that mice fed a HFD had significantly increased body weight, plasma lipids, insulin, and insulin resistance when compared with mice fed regular chow, indicating that the mice developed MetS. We also found that a HFD markedly increased LPS-induced alveolar bone loss, osteoclastogenesis, and inflammatory infiltration. Analysis of gene expression in periodontal tissue revealed that HFD and LPS injection cooperatively stimulated expression of cytokines that are known to be involved in periodontal tissue inflammation and osteoclastogenesissuch as interleukin 6, monocyte-chemotactic protein 1, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. To further understand the potential mechanisms involved in MetS-boosted tissue inflammation, our in vitro studies showed that palmitic acidthe most abundant saturated fatty acid (SFA) and the major SFA in the HFD used in our animal studypotently enhanced LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression in macrophages. In sum, this study demonstrated that MetS was associated with increased periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss in an LPS-induced periodontitis animal model. This study also suggests that SFA palmitic acid may play an important role in MetS-associated periodontitis by enhancing LPS-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages.Journal of Dental Research 12/2014; 94(2). DOI:10.1177/0022034514561658 · 4.14 Impact Factor