Epidemiology of serotype 19A isolates from invasive pneumococcal disease in German children

BMC Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 2.61). 02/2013; 13(1):70. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-70
Source: PubMed


This study presents an analysis of 159 serotype 19A isolates from IPD in children before and after the general recommendation for childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Germany in July 2006. Vaccination formulations used were PCV7, PCV10 (from April 2009) and PCV13 (from Dec. 2009, replacing PCV7).

Isolates from invasive pneumococcal disease in children were serotyped using the Quellung reaction, tested for antibiotic susceptibility and analysed for their multi locus sequence type.

In an analysis of 3328 isolates from invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children that were sent to the German National Reference Center for Streptococci between July 1997 and June 2011, we show that the proportion of 19A isolates ranged between 1.7 and 4.2% in the period 1997 to 2006. After the recommendation for pneumococcal conjugate childhood vaccination, which was issued in July 2006, the proportion of 19A isolates increased significantly to 15.0% in 2010/11. Eight clonal complexes (CC) and groups accounted for 77.2% and 65.3% of all serotype 19A isolates before and after vaccination, respectively. While three CCs and several STs were not detected after vaccine introduction, four CCs and several STs first appeared after vaccination, including three ST320 isolates that could be traced to recent imports from the US, UK and India. The proportion of penicillin-nonsusceptible and of multidrug-resistant 19A isolates moderately increased after vaccine introduction. A significant increase in the use of cephalosporins and azithromycin was noted post-vaccination (p=0.00001 and p=0.0013 respectively).

The prevalence of serotype 19A in Germany has increased significantly between July 2007 and June 2011. Possible reasons for this are the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination, increased use of cephalosporins and azithromycin, import of multidrug-resistant isolates and increased reporting.

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Available from: Matthias Imöhl, May 09, 2014
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    • "In most European countries pneumococcal vaccination with PCV7 was recommended since 2006. Most of the countries report a decrease of vaccine serotypes but higher numbers of non-vaccine serotypes were also noticed [22]. The serotypes (6B, 14, 18C, 23 F) identified in nine of the children in the pre-vaccination era could have been mainly covered by PCV 7 which underlines the need of the introduction of pneumococcal vaccination in that time. "
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    ABSTRACT: S. pneumoniae is a major cause of meningitis, pneumonia and sepsis in children. In 2006 universal pneumococcal vaccination was recommended in Germany for all children up to their second birthday. We have compared the prevalence and outcome of IPD at a single hospital before and after the introduction of vaccination. 55 cases of IPD were identified over an 11 year period. Almost half of the patients were younger than 2 years of age. Most of the children were affected by pneumonia. The second highest incidence seen was for meningitis and sepsis. 17 patients exhibited additional complications. Significant pre-existing and predisposing disorders, such as IRAK 4 defect, ALPS or SLE were identified in 4 patients. Complete recovery was seen in 78% of affected children; 11% had a fatal outcome and 11% suffered from long term complications. Only 31% overall had been vaccinated. The most common serotype was 14. Serotypes not covered by any of the current vaccines were also found. Antibiotic treatment commenced with cephalosporins in over 90%. Frequency of IPD in our hospital did not decrease after initiation of the pneumococcal vaccination. This might be due to vaccinations not being administered satisfactorily as well as to poor education about the need of the vaccination. Pre-existing diseases must be monitored and treated accordingly and rare deficiencies taken into account when IPD takes a foudroyant course. In addition, antibiotic stewardship has been initiated at this hospital centre as a consequence of the high cephalosporin use detected in this study.
    BMC Research Notes 03/2014; 7(1):145. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-145
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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A, following use of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), has been favoured by multiple antibiotic-resistance of this serotype and by other unknown factors. The aim of this study was to examine 19A isolates from invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) obtained before and after PCV7 implementation to ascertain which characteristic, including the presence of pili, might have favoured the emergence of this serotype in Italy. All S. pneumoniae isolates from IPD collected at the Italian National Institute of Health in the years 2001-2003 and 2006-2009 were serotyped. The 19A isolates were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Etest and were genotyped by a combination of PFGE and Multi Locus Sequence Typing. The presence of the pilus islets PI-1 and PI-2 was detected by PCR assays targeting a marker gene in each islet. The proportion of 19A isolates from IPD significantly increased from 4% in 2001-2003 to 12% in 2006-2009. This was largely due to the expansion of a clone characterized by Sequence Type 416, Clonal Complex (CC) 199, already present in Italy before PCV7 implementation. This clone included isolates susceptible to penicillin and containing PI-1 genes. Other CCs contributed to the emergence of serotype 19A: CC63 and CC193, already present in 2001-2003, and new emerging CCs or clones such as CC230, CC320 and ST5204, that include drug-resistant and/or pilus-positive isolates. The expansion of serotype 19A in Italy might have been favoured not only by antibiotic resistance, but also by other bacterial factors such as the presence of pili.
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    ABSTRACT: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevenar(®), Wyeth; PCV7) was introduced to the UK paediatric immunisation schedule in 2006. This study investigates trends in serotypes and multi locus sequence types (STs) among cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Scotland prior to, and following, the introduction of PCV7. Scottish Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Enhanced Surveillance has records of all cases of IPD in Scotland since 1999. Cases diagnosed from blood or cerebrospinal fluid isolates until 2010 were analysed. Logistic and poisson regression modelling was used to assess trends prior to and following the introduction of PCV7. Prior to PCV7 use, on average 650 cases of IPD were reported each year; 12% occurred in those aged <5 years and 35% affected those aged over 65 years. Serotypes in PCV7 represented 47% of cases (68% in <5 year olds). The serotype and ST distribution was relatively stable with only serotype 1 and associated ST 306 showing an increasing trend. PCV7 introduction was associated with a 69% (95% CI: 50%, 80%) reduction in the incidence of IPD among those aged <5 years, a 57% (95% CI: 47%, 66%) reduction among those aged 5-64 years but no significant change among those aged 65 years and over where increases in non-PCV7 serotypes were observed. Serotypes which became more prevalent post-PCV7 are those which were associated with STs related to the PCV7 serotypes. Routine serotyping and sequence typing in Scotland allowed the assessment of the relationship between the capsule and the clones in the post vaccination era. Changes in the distribution of serotypes post PCV7 introduction appear to be driven by associations between serotypes and STs prior to PCV7 introduction. This has implications for the possible effects of the introduction of higher valency vaccines and could aid in predicting replacement serotypes in IPD.
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