Article

Effect of Gum Arabic on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Adenine–Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 02/2013; 8(2):e55242. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055242
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Inflammation and oxidative stress are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease in humans, and in chronic renal failure (CRF) in rats. The aim of this work was to study the role of inflammation and oxidative stress in adenine-induced CRF and the effect thereon of the purported nephroprotective agent gum arabic (GA). Rats were divided into four groups and treated for 4 weeks as follows: control, adenine in feed (0.75%, w/w), GA in drinking water (15%, w/v) and adenine+GA, as before. Urine, blood and kidneys were collected from the rats at the end of the treatment for analysis of conventional renal function tests (plasma creatinine and urea concentration). In addition, the concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the oxidative stress markers glutathione and superoxide dismutase, renal apoptosis, superoxide formation and DNA double strand break frequency, detected by immunohistochemistry for γ-H2AX, were measured. Adenine significantly increased the concentrations of urea and creatinine in plasma, significantly decreased the creatinine clearance and induced significant increases in the concentration of the measured inflammatory mediators. Further, it caused oxidative stress and DNA damage. Treatment with GA significantly ameliorated these actions. The mechanism of the reported salutary effect of GA in adenine-induced CRF is associated with mitigation of the adenine-induced inflammation and generation of free radicals.

Full-text

Available from: Isehaq Al Husseni, May 30, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
375 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Natural polymer hydrogels are useful for controlling release of drugs. In this study, hydrogels containing gum acacia were synthesized by free-radical polymerization of acrylamide with gum acacia. The effect of gum acacia in the hydrogels on the release mechanism of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) was studied at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The hydrogels exhibited high swelling ratios at pH 7.4 and low swelling ratios at pH 1.2. The release study was performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy via complex formation with Fe(III) ions. At pH 1.2, the release profile was found to be anomalous while at pH 7.4, the release kinetic of BP was a perfect zero-order release mechanism. The hydrogels were found to be pH-sensitive and the release profiles of the BP were found to be influenced by the degree of crosslinking of the hydrogel network with gum acacia. The preliminary results suggest that these hydrogels are promising devices for controlled delivery of bisphosphonate to the gastrointestinal region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 11/2014; 73. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.10.064 · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oral adenine (0.75% w/w in feed), is an established model for human chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gum acacia (GA) has been shown to be a nephroprotective agent in this model. Here we aimed at developing a new adenine-induced CKD model in rats via a systemic route (intraperitoneal, i.p.) and to test it with GA to obviate the possibility of a physical interaction between GA and adenine in the gut. Adenine was injected i.p. (50 or 100 mg/Kg for four weeks), and GA was given concomitantly in drinking water at a concentration of 15%, w/v. Several plasma and urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured and the renal damage was assessed histopathologically. Adenine, at the two given i.p. doses, significantly reduced body weight, and increased relative kidney weight, water intake and urine output. It dose-dependently increased plasma and urinary inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, and caused morphological and histological damage resembling that which has been reported with oral adenine. Concomitant treatment with GA significantly mitigated almost all the above measured indices. Administration of adenine i.p. induced CKD signs very similar to those induced by oral adenine. Therefore, this new model is quicker, more practical and accurate than the original (oral) model. GA ameliorates the CKD effects caused by adenine given i.p. suggesting that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties possessed by oral GA are the main mechanism for its salutary action in adenine-induced CKD, an action that is independent of its possible interaction with adenine in the gut.
    American Journal of Translational Research 01/2015; 7(1):28-38. · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gum arabic is the complex exudate of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal tree. This dried sap with immense commercial value is a global commodity, generally harvested in Africa and Western Asia. Non-digestibility, low solution viscosity and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status renders its popularity in food industries. For its desirable emulsifying, stabilizing, binding and shelf-life enhancing properties, it has found application in many foods. Current literature suggests its cardio-, reno-, gut- and dental protective, satiety-inducing, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant implications. Its foray into drug delivery, sensor, tumour imaging and nano-technology has met with appreciable success, fuelling further investigation on its hitherto unexplored functionality. The objective of this review was to highlight the recently-unravelled pharmacological potential of this gum with an aim to provide holistic information on its wide spectrum of utility and prospects.
    International Journal of Food Properties 10/2014; 18(5). DOI:10.1080/10942912.2013.809541 · 0.91 Impact Factor