Article

Frailty, HIV Infection, and Mortality in an Aging Cohort of Injection Drug Users

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2013; 8(1):e54910. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054910
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Frailty is associated with morbidity and premature mortality among elderly HIV-uninfected adults, but the determinants and consequences of frailty in HIV-infected populations remain unclear. We evaluated the correlates of frailty, and the impact of frailty on mortality in a cohort of aging injection drug users (IDUs).
Frailty was assessed using standard criteria among HIV-infected and uninfected IDUs in 6-month intervals from 2005 to 2008. Generalized linear mixed-model analyses assessed correlates of frailty. Cox proportional hazards models estimated risk for all-cause mortality.
Of 1230 participants at baseline, the median age was 48 years and 29% were HIV-infected; the frailty prevalence was 12.3%. In multivariable analysis of 3,365 frailty measures, HIV-infected IDUs had an increased likelihood of frailty (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.24-2.21) compared to HIV-uninfected IDUs; the association was strongest (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.62-3.48) among HIV-infected IDUs with advanced HIV disease (CD4<350 cells/mm3 and detectable HIV RNA). No significant association was seen with less advanced disease. Sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, and prescription drug abuse were also independently associated with frailty. Mortality risk was increased with frailty alone (HR 2.63, 95% CI, 1.23-5.66), HIV infection alone (HR 3.29, 95% CI, 1.85-5.88), and being both HIV-infected and frail (HR, 7.06; 95%CI 3.49-14.3).
Frailty was strongly associated with advanced HIV disease, but IDUs with well-controlled HIV had a similar prevalence to HIV-uninfected IDUs. Frailty was independently associated with mortality, with a marked increase in mortality risk for IDUs with both frailty and HIV infection.

0 Followers
 · 
116 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether HIV infection was associated with reduced physical performance, and to examine if reduced physical performance predicted mortality in our aging cohort of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. Prospective, observational cohort of current and former injection drug users in the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience study in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used as an objective measure of physical performance and measured semiannually along with behavioral and demographic data. Correlates of reduced physical performance (SPPB score ≤10) were identified and the relationship between reduced physical performance, HIV infection and mortality was analyzed by Cox regression. Among 12 270 person-visits contributed by 1627 participants, the median age was 51, 30.3% were HIV-infected and 32.6% had an SPPB score 10 or less. In multivariable models, HIV infection was independently associated with 30% increased odds of reduced physical performance [odds ratio 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.12-1.52]. Reduced physical performance predicted mortality in a dose-response manner and within all HIV disease strata. Whereas reduced physical performance alone (hazard ratio 2.52, 95% CI: 1.59-4.00) and HIV infection alone (hazard ratio 2.78, 95% CI: 1.70-4.54) increased mortality, HIV-infected participants with reduced physical performance had a six-fold increased mortality risk (hazard ratio 6.03, 95% CI: 3.80-10.0) compared with HIV-uninfected participants with higher physical performance. HIV infection was independently associated with reduced physical performance. HIV and reduced physical performance have independent and joint effects on mortality. Physical performance measurement may be an important research and clinical tool to predict adverse outcomes among aging HIV-infected persons.
    AIDS (London, England) 11/2014; 28(18):2711-2719. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000507 · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Frailty is a clinical syndrome initially characterized in geriatric populations with a hallmark of age-related declines in physiologic reserve and function and increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. Recently, frailty has increasingly been recognized as a common and important HIV-associated non-AIDS (HANA) condition. This article provides an overview of our current understanding of frailty and its phenotypic characteristics and evidence that they are related to aging and to chronic inflammation that is associated with aging and also with long-term treated HIV infection. The etiology of this chronic inflammation is unknown but we discuss evidence linking it to persistent infection with cytomegalovirus in both geriatric populations and people living with HIV infection.
    Current HIV/AIDS Reports 02/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1007/s11904-014-0247-3
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adults aging with HIV infection are at risk for age-related comorbidities and syndromes, such as frailty. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression and predictors of the frailty phenotype (FP) among HIV-infected (HIV+) and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) men who have sex with men. A prospective, observational cohort study was nested in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from October 2007-September 2011. FP conversion was defined as the onset of FP over two consecutive study visits. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals ([,]) for FP conversion were estimated using logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations. Of 10,571 completed study visits from 1,946 men who have sex with men, 12% and 9% were FP+ among HIV+ and HIV- men, respectively (p = .002). The proportion of FP+ visits increased with age regardless of HIV status, but was significantly greater in HIV+ compared to HIV- men aged 50-64 years. Of the 10,276 consecutive visit pairs contributed by participants, 5% (537) were classified as FP conversion, and 45% of the men with FP conversion had only one FP+ study visit. FP conversion was significantly associated with a history of AIDS (adjusted odds ratios = 2.26 [1.50, 3.39], but not with HIV+ alone (adjusted odds ratios = 1.26 [0.98, 1.64]). Among men who had one or more FP+ visits, 34% of HIV+ and 38% of HIV- men had less than two comorbidities. These findings suggest that expression of the FP can be measured in men who have sex with men with and without HIV infection and reflects multisystem dysfunction in this population; further investigations are needed to better understand clinical utility.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 10/2013; DOI:10.1093/gerona/glt148 · 4.98 Impact Factor