Substance use among women receiving post-rape medical care, associated post-assault concerns and current substance abuse: Results from a national telephone household probability sample.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. METHOD: Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or only rape incident (n=104) drawn from a national household probability sample of U.S. women, the current study described the extent of peritraumatic substance use, past year substance misuse behaviors, post-rape HIV and pregnancy concerns, and lifetime mental health service utilization as a function of substance use at time of incident. RESULTS: One-third (33%) of women seeking post-rape medical attention reported consuming alcohol or drugs at the time of their rape incident. Nearly one in four (24.7%) and one in seven (15%) women seeking medical attention following their most recent rape incident endorsed drug (marijuana, illicit, non-medical use of prescription drugs, or club drug) use or met substance abuse criteria, respectively, in the past year. One in twelve (8.4%) women reported at least monthly binge drinking in the past year. Approximately two-thirds of women reported seeking services for mental health needs in their lifetime. Post-rape concerns among women reporting peritraumatic substance use were not significantly different from those of women not reporting such use. CONCLUSIONS: Substance use was reported by approximately one-third of women and past year substance abuse was common among those seeking post-rape medical care. Implications for service delivery, intervention implementation, and future research are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Women experience alarming levels of physical and sexual assault, which may lead to escalation of substance use. Reciprocally, evidence from cross-sectional studies indicates that substance use may increase risk of assault. To date, directionality of this relationship remains unclear. This issue is addressed by the present 3-wave longitudinal study in which a national probability sample of 3,006 women were followed for 2 years. Dependent measures were obtained at each wave of the study and included questions about lifetime and new assault status, alcohol abuse, and drug use. Wave 1 use of drugs, but not abuse of alcohol, increased odds of new assault in the subsequent 2 years. Reciprocally, after a new assault, odds of both alcohol abuse and drug use were significantly increased, even among women with no previous use or assault history. For illicit drug use, findings support a vicious cycle relationship in which substance use increases risk of future assault and assault increases risk of subsequent substance use.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 11/1997; 65(5):834-47. DOI:10.1037//0022-006X.65.5.834 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In a quasi-experimental study, control and intervention group outcomes were compared following implementation of alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) by emergency nurses. The primary hypothesis was: Trauma patients who participate in nurse-delivered ED SBIRT will have greater reductions in alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related incidents than those who do not. Patients were screened for alcohol use and those with risky drinking were randomly assigned to either the intervention or usual care group. Those in the intervention group received a brief motivational intervention and referral to appropriate follow-up services. Using medical and driving history records, subjects' alcohol consumption, alcohol-related traffic incidents, repeat injuries, and repeat ED visits were compared between groups at baseline and three-month follow-up. Alcohol consumption decreased by 70% in the intervention group compared to 20% in the usual care group. Drinking frequency also decreased in both groups. Fewer patients from the intervention group (20%) had recurring ED visits compared to patients in the usual care group (31%). The SBIRT procedure can impact alcohol consumption and potentially reduce injuries and ED visits when successfully implemented by staff nurses in the emergency department environment. Further research is needed to improve follow-up methods in this hard to reach, mobile patient population.Journal of Emergency Nursing 11/2010; 36(6):538-45. DOI:10.1016/j.jen.2009.09.011 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alcohol screening and brief interventions in medical settings can significantly reduce alcohol use. Corresponding data for illicit drug use is sparse. A Federally funded screening, brief interventions, referral to treatment (SBIRT) service program, the largest of its kind to date, was initiated by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in a wide variety of medical settings. We compared illicit drug use at intake and 6 months after drug screening and interventions were administered. SBIRT services were implemented in a range of medical settings across six states. A diverse patient population (Alaska Natives, American Indians, African-Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics), was screened and offered score-based progressive levels of intervention (brief intervention, brief treatment, referral to specialty treatment). In this secondary analysis of the SBIRT service program, drug use data was compared at intake and at a 6-month follow-up, in a sample of a randomly selected population (10%) that screened positive at baseline. Of 459,599 patients screened, 22.7% screened positive for a spectrum of use (risky/problematic, abuse/addiction). The majority were recommended for a brief intervention (15.9%), with a smaller percentage recommended for brief treatment (3.2%) or referral to specialty treatment (3.7%). Among those reporting baseline illicit drug use, rates of drug use at 6-month follow-up (4 of 6 sites), were 67.7% lower (p<0.001) and heavy alcohol use was 38.6% lower (p<0.001), with comparable findings across sites, gender, race/ethnic, age subgroups. Among persons recommended for brief treatment or referral to specialty treatment, self-reported improvements in general health (p<0.001), mental health (p<0.001), employment (p<0.001), housing status (p<0.001), and criminal behavior (p<0.001) were found. SBIRT was feasible to implement and the self-reported patient status at 6 months indicated significant improvements over baseline, for illicit drug use and heavy alcohol use, with functional domains improved, across a range of health care settings and a range of patients.Drug and alcohol dependence 10/2008; 99(1-3):280-95. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.08.003 · 3.60 Impact Factor