Substance use among women receiving post-rape medical care, associated post-assault concerns and current substance abuse: Results from a national telephone household probability sample.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. METHOD: Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or only rape incident (n=104) drawn from a national household probability sample of U.S. women, the current study described the extent of peritraumatic substance use, past year substance misuse behaviors, post-rape HIV and pregnancy concerns, and lifetime mental health service utilization as a function of substance use at time of incident. RESULTS: One-third (33%) of women seeking post-rape medical attention reported consuming alcohol or drugs at the time of their rape incident. Nearly one in four (24.7%) and one in seven (15%) women seeking medical attention following their most recent rape incident endorsed drug (marijuana, illicit, non-medical use of prescription drugs, or club drug) use or met substance abuse criteria, respectively, in the past year. One in twelve (8.4%) women reported at least monthly binge drinking in the past year. Approximately two-thirds of women reported seeking services for mental health needs in their lifetime. Post-rape concerns among women reporting peritraumatic substance use were not significantly different from those of women not reporting such use. CONCLUSIONS: Substance use was reported by approximately one-third of women and past year substance abuse was common among those seeking post-rape medical care. Implications for service delivery, intervention implementation, and future research are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Limited research has focused on prescription drug misuse among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), or investigated risk factors contributing to misuse. This study aims to investigate the relationship between multiple psychosocial risk factors (i.e., childhood abuse, discrimination, mental health distress) and prescription drug misuse among YMSM who are current substance users. YMSM (N=191) who reported prescription drug misuse in the past 6 months were recruited in Philadelphia between 2012 and 2013 to complete an anonymous survey assessing demographic information, substance use, and psychosocial factors. High levels of childhood physical abuse and perceived stress were associated with higher opioid misuse, while high levels of depression were associated with lower misuse of opioids. Those with higher levels of perceived stress were more likely to report higher tranquilizer misuse, while those with more experiences of social homophobia/racism and higher levels of depression and somatization reported higher stimulant misuse. Regarding demographic correlates, older participants were more likely than younger participants to report higher opioid misuse, while racial minorities were less likely than White participants to report higher misuse of tranquilizers, stimulants, and illicit drug use. Bisexual/heterosexual/other identified participants were more likely than gay identified participants to report higher misuse of all three classes of prescription drugs. Associations of risk factors with substance use among YMSM are complex and offer opportunities for additional research. Our findings show that prevention efforts must address substance use among YMSM in sync with psychosocial stressors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.