Why a special issue on anal cancer and what is in it?

Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Vic. 3053, Australia.
Sexual Health (Impact Factor: 1.37). 12/2012; 9(6):501-3. DOI: 10.1071/SH12109
Source: PubMed


This editorial describes the contents of this special issue of Sexual Health devoted to anal cancer. The aim of the issue is to provide readers with information to assist them in making decisions about what to do about detecting anal cancer early in men who have sex with men with HIV. Should they be advocating screening? It discusses the epidemiology of HPV infection, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer in MSM, heterosexual men and women; anal cancer screening and treatment of anal cancer. And most importantly, what should be done about vaccinating boys with the HPV vaccine.

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Available from: Richard John Hillman, Aug 20, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Anal cancer comprises malignancies of the anal canal principally of two morphologic variants: squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma. In most settings, SCC compromises more than 70% of cases. In the general population, anal cancer is uncommon, with age-standardised incidence rates mostly between 1 and 2 per 100 000 per year. However, incidence of anal SCC is increasing by 1-3% per year in developed country settings. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types can be detected in 80-90% of all anal SCC cases, making it second only to cervical cancer in the closeness of its association with this virus. HPV-16 can be detected in similar to 90% of HPV-positive cases of anal SCC. Case-control studies have demonstrated that sexual risk factors (homosexuality in men and multiple sexual partners in women) are strongly associated with anal cancer risk. Other risk factors include immune deficiency and tobacco exposure. Anal cancer rates are highest in homosexual men, particularly in those who are HIV-positive, in whom anal cancer is among the most common of all cancers. Vaccination against HPV holds great promise for anal cancer prevention for those not already HPV-infected. For the current generation of adult high-risk populations, screening programs to allow early detection and treatment are under investigation.
    Sexual Health 09/2012; 9(6). DOI:10.1071/SH12070 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anal sex is known to be an important risk factor for anal cancer. Yet compared with vaginal intercourse, little is known about anal sex practices in either heterosexual or male homosexual populations. Of the data that are available, it appears a significant and increasing minority of heterosexuals have ever practised anal intercourse. Among homosexual men, most, but not all, report anal sex, with large proportions of men engaging in both insertive and receptive anal intercourse. The most significant finding of the review was the dearth of population-based data, particularly relating to homosexual men.
    Sexual Health 07/2012; 9(6). DOI:10.1071/SH12014 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on the epidemiology and natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are essential to understand the significance of this virus in the aetiology of anal cancer in men who have sex with men (MSM). This paper presents a review of studies on anal HPV in MSM. For this review, a Medline search was performed to identify English-language articles published in peer-reviewed journals on the epidemiology, natural history and risk factors for anal HPV infection in MSM. Anal HPV prevalence is high in MSM and infection with multiple HPV types is common. The available prospective data suggest detection of new anal HPV infections may also be common. However, with limited epidemiological data available on infection dynamics and associated behavioural risk factors, it is difficult to draw conclusions on how persistent anal HPV infection is in this population.
    Sexual Health 12/2012; 9(6):527-37. DOI:10.1071/SH12043 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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