Rates and factors associated with admission in patients presenting to the ED with TIA in the United States-2006 to 2008
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The estimates of patients who present with transient ischemic attacks (TIA) in the emergency departments (EDs) of United States and their disposition and factors that determine hospital admission are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: We used a nationally representative database to determine the rate and predictors of admission in TIA patients presenting to EDs. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Emergency Department Sample (2006-2008) for all patients presenting with a primary diagnosis of TIA in the United States. Samples were weighted to provide national estimates of TIA hospitalizations and identify factors that increase the odds of hospital admission including age, sex, type of insurance, median household income, and hospital type (urban teaching, urban nonteaching, and nonurban). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of hospital admission. RESULTS: There were 812908 ED visits for primary diagnosis of TIA; mean age (±SD), 70.3 ± 14.9 years; and 57.9% were women from 2006 to 2008. Of these ED visits, 516837 (63.5%) were admitted to the hospital, whereas 296071 (36.5%) were discharged from the ED to home. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting age, sex, and medical comorbidities, independent factors associated with hospital admissions were median household income $64000 or higher (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.44; P = .003), Medicare insurance type (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.14-1.26; P < .0001), and metropolitan teaching hospital ED (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.90-2.48; P < .0001). CONCLUSION: From 2006 to 2008, approximately 64% of all patients presenting with TIAs to the EDs within United States were admitted to the hospital. Factors unrelated to patients' condition such as median household income, insurance status, and ED affiliated hospital type play an important role in the decision to admit TIA patients to the hospitals.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Approximately 70% of all patients presenting with transient ischemic attack are admitted to the hospital in United States. The duration and cost of hospitalization and associated factors are poorly understood. This article seeks to identify the proportion and determinants of prolonged hospitalization and to determine the impact on hospital charges using nationally representative data. METHODS: We determined the national estimates of length of stay, mortality, and charges incurred in patients admitted with transient ischemic attack (diagnosis-related code 524 or 069) using Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2002 to 2010. Nationwide Inpatient Sample is the largest all-payer inpatient care database in the United States and contains data from ≈1000 hospitals, which is a 20% stratified sample of US community hospitals. All the variables pertaining to hospitalization were compared in 3 groups on the basis of length of hospital stay (≤1, 2-6, and ≥7 days). RESULTS: A total of 949 558 patients were admitted with the diagnosis of transient ischemic attack during the study period. The length of hospitalization was ≤1, 2 to 6, and ≥7 days in 232 732 (24.4%), 662 909 (70%), and 53 917 (5.6%) patients, respectively. The mean hospitalization charges were $10876, $17 187, and $38 200 for patients hospitalized for ≤1, 2 to 6, and ≥7 days, respectively. The use of thrombolytics (0.03%, 0.09%, and 0.1%; P<0.0001) for ischemic stroke was very low among the 3 strata defined by length of hospitalization. In the multivariate analysis, the following factors were associated with length of hospitalization of ≥2 days: age >65 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.5), women (OR, 1.2), admission to teaching hospitals (OR, 1.1), renal failure (OR, 1.7), hypertension (OR, 1.1), diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.2), chronic lung disease (OR, 1.4), congestive heart failure (OR, 1.4), atrial fibrillation (OR, 1.5), ischemic stroke occurrence (OR, 1.4), Medicare/Medicaid insurance (OR, 1.3), and hospital location in Northeast US region (OR, 1.5; all P values <0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 75% of patients admitted with transient ischemic attack stay in the hospital for ≥2 days, with the most important determinants being pre-existing medical comorbidities. Longer duration of hospital stay is associated with 2- to 5-fold greater hospitalization charges.Stroke 04/2013; 44(6). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.000590 · 6.02 Impact Factor
- Stroke 08/2014; 45(10). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006236 · 6.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The number of inpatient admissions for proximal humerus fracture is increasing, but the factors that determine hospitalization are not well documented. We sought to identify predictors of hospital admission among individuals presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a fracture of the proximal humerus.Methods Using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample for 2010 and 2011, an estimated 285 661 patients were identified and separated into those who were admitted to hospital (19%) and those who were discharged directly home (81%). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to identify independent predictors of hospital admission.ResultsFactors associated with admission included increasing age and Charlson comorbidity index, ED visit on a weekday, Medicare and Medicaid insurance, open fracture, injury due to motor vehicle crash, polytrauma, urban teaching hospital, and residence in the Northeast. The lowest ratio of hospital admission to home discharge was noted for uninsured patients (0.09).DiscussionFactors unrelated to medical complexity such as insurance status, geographic region, timing of ED visit, and hospital type are associated with inpatient admission for proximal humerus fracture. Interventions to reduce variation in hospital admission and the influence of nonclinical factors merit attention.Level of EvidenceLevel II, prognostic study.American Journal of Emergency Medicine 11/2014; 33(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2014.10.045 · 1.15 Impact Factor