To determine whether classic muscle function tests and jumping mechanography (JM) are related to tongue strength.
Ninety-seven community-dwelling individuals aged 70 and older (49 female, 48 male, mean age 80.7, range 70–95) with and without identified sarcopenia.
Participants performed muscle function tests including the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), grip strength, and JM. Isometric tongue strength was evaluated using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). JM consisted of maximal countermovement jumps performed on a force plate to calculate weight-corrected peak power and jump height. Total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess appendicular lean mass (ALM) to define sarcopenia based on commonly used ALM/height2 cutoffs. Associations between IOPI measures and other muscle function tests were evaluated.
Sarcopenia was present in 23.7% (23/97) of this cohort. Anterior isometric tongue pressure was positively correlated with grip strength (P = .003), jump height (P = .01), and power (P = .04). Individuals in the lowest tertile of tongue pressure had lower scores on these muscle function tests than individuals in the other tertiles. Classic functional tests and ALM/height2 were unrelated to tongue strength.
In older adults with and without sarcopenia, isometric tongue pressure is positively correlated with grip strength and jump height and power. These data support consideration of oropharyngeal functional decline as part of the sarcopenia syndrome.
"Despite structural differences between the tongue and hand, the techniques used to assess muscle motor unit activities in each case are those devised for assessment of limb muscle motor unit activity. Accordingly, previous studies compared tongue and hand muscle function in regard to strength (Buehring et al. 2013), fatigue (Solomon et al. 2002; Adams et al. 2014a, b), movement precision (Sutton et al. 1977) and force regulation (Adams et al. 2014b). The results of this work indicate that the control is comparable in each structure although pinpoint accuracy of the hand appears somewhat greater— at least within the context of displacement (Sussman 1970). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Motor unit recruitment was assessed in two muscles with similar muscle fiber-type compositions and that participate in skilled movements: the tongue muscle, genioglossus (GG), and the hand muscle, first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Our primary objectives were to determine in the framework of a voluntary movement whether muscle force is regulated in tongue as it is in limb, i.e., via processes of rate coding and recruitment. Recruitment in the two muscles was assessed within each subject in the context of ramp force (FDI) and in the tongue (GG) during vowel production and specifically, in the context of ramp increases in loudness, and subsequently expressed relative to the maximal. The principle findings of the study are that the general rules of recruitment and rate coding hold true for both GG and FDI, and second, that average firing rates, firing rates at recruitment and peak firing rates in GG are significantly higher than for FDI (P < 0.001) despite tasks performed across comparable force ranges (~2-40 % of max). The higher firing rates observed in the tongue within the context of phonation may be a function of that muscle's dual role as (prime) mover and hydrostatic support element.
Experimental Brain Research 04/2015; 233(7). DOI:10.1007/s00221-015-4284-y · 2.04 Impact Factor
"Understandably, dysfunction of the respiratory muscles increases the risk of aspiration and aspiration pneumonia  . Decreased masticatory muscle force and weak swallowing function lead to malnutrition     . The incidence of infections is known to be significantly higher in patients diagnosed with sarcopenia and hospitalized in geriatric wards . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sarcopenia, an aging-induced generalized decrease in muscle mass, strength, and function, is known to affect elderly individuals by decreasing mobile function and increasing frailty and imbalance that lead to falls and fragile fractures. Sarcopenia is a known risk factor for osteoporotic fractures, infections, and early death in some specific situations. The number of patients with sarcopenia is estimated to increase to 500 million people in the year 2050. Sarcopenia is believed to be caused by multiple factors such as disuse, malnutrition, age-related cellular changes, apoptosis, and genetic predisposition; however, this remains to be determined. Various methods have been developed, but no safe or effective treatment has been found to date. This paper is a review on the association between sarcopenia and its related-fractures and their diagnoses and management methods to prevent fractures.
Aging and Disease 08/2014; 5(4):226-37. DOI:10.14336/AD.2014.0500226 · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jumping mechanography uses maximal countermovement jumps to test obtain such as jump power (JPow). Recently, it has been shown to be a safe method for assessing muscle function in older adults; however, little is known about the relationships between JPow, muscle strength, and sarcopenia status. The purpose of this study was to examine jump performance, muscle strength, and sarcopenia status in older adults.
This was a cross-sectional study that included men (n = 27) and women (n = 33) (55-75 years) recruited from the general community. Participants completed health status and physical activity questionnaires. Body composition, including appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), bone free lean body mass, and relative skeletal muscle mass index, were assessed by total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. The criteria for sarcopenia were relative skeletal muscle mass index values less than 7.26 kg/m for men and less than 5.45 kg/m for women. Three vertical jumps on a jump mat were performed to assess JPow, jump velocity (JVel), and jump height (JHt). Muscle strength was measured by 1RM testing for leg press (LP) and right and left hip abduction isotonic resistance exercises.
Sarcopenia was found in 20% (12/60) of the participants. Jump power was significantly lower (P= .001) in the sarcopenia group than in the normal group, 651.1 (41.7) W versus 851.0 (27.4) W, respectively. Jump power and JHt were significantly (P< .01) positively correlated (r= 0.54-0.77) with ASM and bone free lean body mass. Significant (P< .01) positive correlations (r= 0.43-0.70) were also reported between jump test variables (JPow, JVel, JHt) and muscle strength (LP, right and left hip abduction).
The jump test protocol was conducted safely with no injuries or balance issues. Our finding of lower JPow in sarcopenic individuals adds new information to the existing literature on age-related declines in muscle power.
Community-dwelling individuals classified as sarcopenic had significantly lower JPow but not muscle strength compared with their counterparts with normal amounts of muscle mass. Jump test variables were positively correlated with lean tissue and lower body muscle strength. Based on our findings, JPow may be useful for sarcopenia screening in the middle-aged and older adults; however, more research is needed to determine the utility of this method in clinical populations.
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