Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the skeletally immature athlete: diagnosis and management.

The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (Impact Factor: 2.4). 02/2013; 21(2):78-87. DOI: 10.5435/JAAOS-21-02-78
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Intrasubstance anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in children and adolescents were once considered rare occurrences, with tibial eminence avulsion fractures generally regarded as the pediatric ACL injury equivalent. However, with increased single-sport focus, less free play, and year-round training at younger ages, intrasubstance ACL injuries in children and adolescents are being diagnosed with increased frequency. As in the adult, a knee devoid of ligamentous stability predisposes the pediatric patient to meniscal and chondral injuries and early degenerative changes. Management of ACL injuries in skeletally immature patients includes physeal-sparing, partial transphyseal, and complete transphyseal ACL reconstruction. Complications include iatrogenic growth disturbance resulting from physeal violation.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury - are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete's vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is intended as an overview of these injury types for medical students, healthcare professionals and researchers.
    BMC sports science, medicine and rehabilitation. 01/2014; 6:22.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patella dislocations are the most common knee injuries causing hemarthrosis in children. Flake fractures represent the main complication of these injuries and require fixation. First time dislocations are treated conservatively. Recurrent dislocations are managed operatively. Precise analysis of the underlying dispositional and pathological factors is important to determine the appropriate operative procedure. To protect the growth plate, special techniques are required. Tibial spine fractures are bony avulsions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Management includes closed reduction in hyperextension and immobilization in a knee cast. Tibial spine fractures which cannot be reduced require operative treatment using either arthroscopic or open reduction and stabilization without injuring the growth plate. Intraligamentous ACL injuries are increasingly observed in children and adolescents. The risk of meniscus tears or chondral damage is high in these injuries. In case of persistent ACL instability, early reconstruction is recommended. Various techniques have been described; however, there is no consensus regarding the most favorable technique. The attending physician must be familiar with different ACL reconstruction techniques and with the anatomy of the growth plate. Meniscus tears require early suturing. Healing rates are good in children.
    Der Orthopäde 03/2014; · 0.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the last few decades, sports injuries in pediatric and adolescent athletes have increased dramatically, with ∼ 38 million young athletes participating in organized sports annually in the United States. Starting at the age of 2 years, an increase of the incidence of knee injuries until adulthood with a peak at 6 and at 13 years of age has been observed. Due to a physiologic laxity of the ligaments, ligament injuries are uncommon in these patients, but they are getting more frequent. In the growing knee, open physis are the points of minor resistance. Therefore apophyseal injuries of the pediatric knee are more common. Diagnostics and treatment of ligament injuries of the pediatric and adolescent knees are challenging. This article presents an overview of ligament injuries in the pediatric and adolescent knee, their diagnostic work-up, and their treatment in the growing patient.
    Seminars in musculoskeletal radiology 11/2014; 18(5):489-97. · 0.95 Impact Factor