Daily exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) in the environment has raised public concerns on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to ELF MF might associate with an elevated risk of cancer and other diseases in humans. To explain and/or support epidemiological observations, many laboratory studies have been conducted to elucidate the biological effects of ELF MF exposure and the underlying mechanisms of action. In order to reveal the global effects of ELF MF on protein expression, the proteomics approaches has been employed in this research field. In 2005, WHO organized a Workshop on Application of Proteomics and Transcriptomics in electromagnetic fields (EMF) Research in Helsinki, Finland to discuss the related problems and solutions. Later the journal Proteomics published a special issue devoted to the application of proteomics to EMF research. This chapter aims to summarize the current research progress and discuss the applicability of proteomics approaches in studying on ELF MF induced biological effects and the underlying mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapidly developing postgenome research has made proteins an attractive target for biological analysis. The well-established term of proteome is defined as the complete set of proteins expressed in a given cell, tissue or organism. Unlike the genome, a proteome is rapidly changing as it tends to adapt to microenvironmental signals. The systematic analysis of the proteome at a given time and state is referred to as proteomics. This technique provides information on the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate physiology and pathophysiology of the cell. Applications of proteome profiling in radiation research are increasing. However, the large-scale proteomics data sets generated need to be integrated into other fields of radiation biology to facilitate the interpretation of radiation-induced cellular and tissue effects. The aim of this review is to introduce the most recent developments in the field of radiation proteomics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the mechanism of cells subjected to external electromagnetic fields, the expression of cyclin kinase inhibitor p27 is analyzed in the four cell cycle phases. The regulatory functions are investigated in gap phase1 to synthesis, gap phase 2 to mitotic phase and post mitotic phase transition in the mammalian cell cycle processes. A mathematical model is developed to meet the general cell cycle regulatory network based on the molecular dynamics method. Phase plane analysis results show that the p27 over-expression can lead to the hysteresis effect of cell cycle processes and phase transition delay. It is an universal approach to predict the key regulatory gene in signal transduction pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute biological effects caused by the exposure to high doses of radiation, either ionizing or non-ionizing, are relatively well known but the delayed effects, occurring decades after exposure, are difficult to predict. The knowledge of the acute and delayed effects of the low doses of ionizing radiation (e.g. bystander effect) or non-ionizing radiation (e.g. radiation emitted by wireless communication devices) is not yet reliably established. Often the acute effects of low doses are small and difficult to discover and replicate in scientific studies. Chronic effects of prolonged exposures to low-dose radiation for decades are virtually unknown and often not possible to predict on the basis of the knowledge gained from acute exposures to high doses of radiation. Physiological significance of the biological effects induced by low doses of radiation is not known. The same lack of predictability of outcomes applies to the delayed effects of high-dose radiation exposures. Proteomics, supplemented with other "omics" techniques, might be the best way forward to find out the target molecules of radiation, the biomarkers of radiation exposure and the physiological and health significance of the acute and delayed biological effects caused by the exposures to high and low-dose radiation. However, the currently available database of radiation effects on proteomes is far too small to be useful in formulation of new hypotheses concerning health consequences of radiation exposures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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