Peri-implant Disease and Chronic Periodontitis: Is Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter Polymorphism the Common Risk Factor in a Brazilian Population?
ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the association between interleukin-6 (IL-6) G174C polymorphism and susceptibility to peri-implant disease (PID) and/or chronic periodontitis (CP), in Brazilian subjects. Materials and Methods: A total of 103 Brazilian patients were submitted to peri-implant and periodontal examination. According to their peri-implant characteristics, patients were divided into: group A (healthy, n = 52), group B (peri-implant mucositis, n = 20), and group C (peri-implantitis, n = 31). All patients (n = 103) were also characterized as healthy periodontium patients without CP (HP, n = 60) or CP patients (CP, n = 43). DNA was extracted from buccal cells, and the IL-6 G174C polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Differences in the prevalence of genotypes and alleles between healthy and ill patients were analyzed by chi-square test (P < .05), considering PID, CP, and PID+CP. Results: Results considered the presence of PID and/or CP in all patients. The CC genotype was the least common in all groups. The chi-square test showed no significant correlation between genotypes. However, the odds ratio showed that individuals with GG genotype and allele G were 1.53 and 1.43 times more susceptible to PID, respectively. The risk of presenting CP was increased in patients with GG genotype and allele G 1.35 and 1.24 times, respectively. When both diseases were evaluated together, patients with GG genotypes and allele G were 1.75 and 1.50 times more likely to present PID and CP together. When PID was evaluated without CP, patients with allele G were 2.08 times more susceptible to PID. Conclusions: The frequency of the genotype IL-6 174GG and allele G was different between healthy and ill groups. Therefore, this genotype may be a common risk factor for both CP and PID in Brazilian populations.