Paget-Schroetter Syndrome Diagnosed by Bedside Emergency Physician performed Ultrasound: A Case Report.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.
Journal of Emergency Medicine (Impact Factor: 0.97). 01/2013; 45(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.11.031
Source: PubMed


Paget-Schroetter syndrome, or an upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT), occurs in young people after strenuous repetitive activity involving the upper extremity. The long-term morbidity and mortality of this condition is similar to the effects of lower-extremity DVT and therefore, its early diagnosis and treatment are essential.

This case report describes Paget-Schroetter syndrome (effort thrombosis) diagnosed at the bedside by Emergency Physician performed ultrasound.

Case report:
This is a case report of an uncommon but potentially dangerous disease that carries high morbidity if not diagnosed and treated early. Emergency Physicians should be aware of this condition in any young patient who presents with upper-extremity complaints with a history of repetitive use. Although the role of ultrasound in the diagnosis of lower-extremity DVT is well described, this case report is unique because it illustrates the diagnosis of Paget-Schroetter syndrome completed at the bedside.

This article presents the case and discusses the incidence, potential causes, predisposing factors, diagnostic modalities, and the course of treatment for this particular diagnosis.

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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the clinical, diagnostic, and prognostic aspects of upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT). To identify the clinical and laboratory parameters associated with this disease, to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonographic methods for its detection, and to establish the frequency of both early and late complications. After a careful history was taken, 58 consecutive patients with signs and symptoms that were clinically suggestive of UEDVT underwent the determination of antithrombin III and protein C and S levels and resistance to activated protein C and lupuslike anticoagulants. Compression ultrasonography, color flow Doppler imaging, and Doppler ultrasonography were performed prior to venography. Patients with confirmed UEDVT underwent objective tests to detect a pulmonary embolism and were followed up prospectively to record recurrent thromboembolic events and postthrombotic sequelae. Findings from venography confirmed UEDVT in 27 patients (47%). Central venous catheters, thrombophilic states, and a previous leg vein thrombosis were statistically significantly associated with UEDVT. Sensitivity and specificity of compression ultrasonography (96% and 93.5%, respectively) and color flow Doppler imaging (100% and 93%, respectively) were comparable and better than those of Doppler ultrasonography (81% and 77%, respectively). Objective findings suggestive of a pulmonary embolism were recorded in 36% of the patients with UEDVT. After a mean follow-up of 2 years, 2 patients with UEDVT experienced recurrent thromboembolic events, and 4 had postthrombotic sequelae. Symptomatic UEDVT is associated with central venous catheters, thrombophilic states, and a previous leg vein thrombosis. Both compression ultrasonography and color flow Doppler imaging are accurate methods for its detection. A pulmonary embolism is a common complication of the disease. Finally, this disorder may recur and may be followed by postthrombotic sequelae.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of symptomatic upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and its association with symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in a community teaching hospital. The prevalence of symptomatic upper extremity DVT was evaluated retrospectively at a community teaching hospital during the 2-year period between July 1, 1998, and June 30, 2000. Patients were identified by International Classification of Disease, ninth revision, clinical modification, discharge codes and a review of the records of all compression Doppler ultrasonograms, venograms of the upper extremities, and magnetic resonance angiograms of the upper extremities. Symptomatic upper extremity DVT was diagnosed in 65 of 44,136 patients of all ages (0.15%) [or 64 of 34,567 adult patients >or= 20 years of age; 0.19%]. In seven patients, the upper extremity DVT was shown by venography to extend proximally to the brachiocephalic vein. Among these, the DVT extended to the superior vena cava in two. All of the patients received anticoagulant therapy for upper extremity DVT. No patients developed symptomatic PE. Central lines at the site of the upper extremity DVT were inserted in 39 of 65 patients (60%). Cancer was diagnosed in 30 of 65 patients (46%), 23 cancer patients also had central lines, and 19 patients (29%) had upper extremity DVT with no apparent cause. All patients had swelling of the upper extremities. Erythema over the affected site was present in four patients (6%). Pain was present in 26 patients (40%), although some discomfort due to swelling was present in all patients. Symptomatic upper extremity DVT is not uncommon in hospitalized patients. Symptomatic PE resulting from upper extremity DVT was not observed in these patients, all of whom were treated with anticoagulants.
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    ABSTRACT: Upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis is less common than lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. However, upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis is associated with similar adverse consequences and is becoming more common in patients with complex medical conditions requiring central venous catheters or wires. Although guidelines suggest that this disorder be managed using approaches similar to those for lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis, studies are refining the prognosis and management of upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis. Physicians should be familiar with the diagnostic and treatment considerations for this disease. This review will differentiate between primary and secondary upper-extremity deep venous thromboses; assess the risk factors and clinical sequelae associated with upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis, comparing these with lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis; and describe an approach to treatment and prevention of secondary upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis based on clinical evidence.
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Kristin Carmody