The Role of Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 in Atheroma Formation Varies Depending on the Site-Specific Hemodynamic Environment
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Polymorphisms in the platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)-1 gene are linked to increased risk of coronary artery disease. Because PECAM-1 has been demonstrated to form a mechanosensory complex that can modulate inflammatory responses in murine arterial endothelial cells, we hypothesized that PECAM-1 contributes to atherogenesis in a shear-dependent and site-specific manner.Approach and Results-ApoE(-/-) mice that were wild-type, heterozygous, or deficient in PECAM-1 were placed on a high-fat diet. Detailed analysis of the aorta at sites with differing hemodynamics revealed that PECAM-1-deficient mice had reduced disease in areas of disturbed flow, whereas plaque burden was increased in areas of steady, laminar flow. In concordance with these observations, bone marrow chimera experiments revealed that hematopoietic PECAM-1 resulted in accelerated atheroma formation in areas of laminar and disturbed flow, however endothelial PECAM-1 moderated disease progression in areas of high sheer stress. Moreover, using shear stress-modifying carotid cuffs, PECAM-1 was shown to promote macrophage recruitment into lesions developing in areas of low shear stress. CONCLUSIONS: PECAM-1 on bone marrow cells is proatherogenic irrespective of the hemodynamic environment, however endothelial cell PECAM-1 is antiatherogenic in high shear environments. Thus, targeting this pathway therapeutically would require a cell-type and context-specific strategy.
- Biorheology 01/2013; 50(5):223-39. DOI:10.3233/BIR-130646 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-A expressed in endothelial, epithelial and blood cells can regulate permeability and leukocyte extravasation. Atherosclerosis develops at sites of disturbed flow in large arteries but the mechanisms guiding inflammatory cells into these predilection sites remain unknown. To characterize cell-specific functions of JAM-A in atherosclerosis, we employed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with a somatic or endothelium-specific deficiency in JAM-A and bone marrow chimeras with JAM-A-deficient leukocytes. We show that impaired JAM-A expression in endothelial cells reduced mononuclear cell recruitment into the arterial wall and limited atherosclerotic lesion formation in hyperlipidemic mice. In contrast, JAM-A deficiency in bone marrow cells impeded monocyte de-adhesion, thereby increasing vascular permeability and lesion formation, whereas somatic JAM-A deletion revealed no significant effects. Regions with disturbed flow displayed a focal enrichment and luminal redistribution of endothelial JAM-A and were preferentially protected by its deficiency. The functional expression and redistribution of endothelial JAM-A was increased by oxidized low-density lipoprotein, but confined by athero¬protective laminar flow through an up-regulation of miR-145, which repressed JAM-A. Our data identify endothelial JAM-A as an important effector molecule integrating atherogenic conditions to direct inflammatory cell entry at predilection sites of atherosclerosis.Circulation 09/2013; 129(1). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.004149 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PECAM-1 (also known as CD31) is a cellular adhesion and signaling receptor comprising six extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like homology domains, a short transmembrane domain and a 118 amino acid cytoplasmic domain that becomes serine and tyrosine phosphorylated upon cellular activation. PECAM-1 expression is restricted to blood and vascular cells. In circulating platelets and leukocytes, PECAM-1 functions largely as an inhibitory receptor that, via regulated sequential phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain, limits cellular activation responses. PECAM-1 is also highly expressed at endothelial cell intercellular junctions, where it functions as a mechanosensor, as a regulator of leukocyte trafficking and in the maintenance of endothelial cell junctional integrity. In this review, we will describe (1) the functional domains of PECAM-1 and how they contribute to its barrier-enhancing properties, (2) how the physical properties of PECAM-1 influence its subcellular localization and its ability to influence endothelial cell barrier function, (3) various stimuli that initiate PECAM-1 signaling and/or function at the endothelial junction and (4) cross-talk of PECAM-1 with other junctional molecules, which can influence endothelial cell function.Cell and Tissue Research 01/2014; 355(3). DOI:10.1007/s00441-013-1779-3 · 3.33 Impact Factor