The Role of Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 in Atheroma Formation Varies Depending on the Site-Specific Hemodynamic Environment
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Polymorphisms in the platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1)-1 gene are linked to increased risk of coronary artery disease. Because PECAM-1 has been demonstrated to form a mechanosensory complex that can modulate inflammatory responses in murine arterial endothelial cells, we hypothesized that PECAM-1 contributes to atherogenesis in a shear-dependent and site-specific manner.Approach and Results-ApoE(-/-) mice that were wild-type, heterozygous, or deficient in PECAM-1 were placed on a high-fat diet. Detailed analysis of the aorta at sites with differing hemodynamics revealed that PECAM-1-deficient mice had reduced disease in areas of disturbed flow, whereas plaque burden was increased in areas of steady, laminar flow. In concordance with these observations, bone marrow chimera experiments revealed that hematopoietic PECAM-1 resulted in accelerated atheroma formation in areas of laminar and disturbed flow, however endothelial PECAM-1 moderated disease progression in areas of high sheer stress. Moreover, using shear stress-modifying carotid cuffs, PECAM-1 was shown to promote macrophage recruitment into lesions developing in areas of low shear stress. CONCLUSIONS: PECAM-1 on bone marrow cells is proatherogenic irrespective of the hemodynamic environment, however endothelial cell PECAM-1 is antiatherogenic in high shear environments. Thus, targeting this pathway therapeutically would require a cell-type and context-specific strategy.
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis may be triggered by an elevated net transport of lipid-carrying macromolecules from plasma into the arterial wall. We hypothesised that whether lesions are of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) type or are less fatty and more fibrous depends on the degree of elevation of transport, with greater uptake leading to the former. We further hypothesised that the degree of elevation can depend on haemodynamic wall shear stress characteristics and nitric oxide synthesis. Placing a tapered cuff around the carotid artery of apolipoprotein E -/- mice modifies patterns of shear stress and eNOS expression, and triggers lesion development at the upstream and downstream cuff margins; upstream but not downstream lesions resemble the TCFA. We measured wall uptake of a macromolecular tracer in the carotid artery of C57bl/6 mice after cuff placement. Uptake was elevated in the regions that develop lesions in hyperlipidaemic mice and was significantly more elevated where plaques of the TCFA type develop. Computational simulations and effects of reversing the cuff orientation indicated a role for solid as well as fluid mechanical stresses. Inhibiting NO synthesis abolished the difference in uptake between the upstream and downstream sites. The data support the hypothesis that excessively elevated wall uptake of plasma macromolecules initiates the development of the TCFA, suggest that such uptake can result from solid and fluid mechanical stresses, and are consistent with a role for NO synthesis. Modification of wall transport properties might form the basis of novel methods for reducing plaque rupture.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115728. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115728 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-A expressed in endothelial, epithelial and blood cells can regulate permeability and leukocyte extravasation. Atherosclerosis develops at sites of disturbed flow in large arteries but the mechanisms guiding inflammatory cells into these predilection sites remain unknown. To characterize cell-specific functions of JAM-A in atherosclerosis, we employed apolipoprotein E-deficient mice with a somatic or endothelium-specific deficiency in JAM-A and bone marrow chimeras with JAM-A-deficient leukocytes. We show that impaired JAM-A expression in endothelial cells reduced mononuclear cell recruitment into the arterial wall and limited atherosclerotic lesion formation in hyperlipidemic mice. In contrast, JAM-A deficiency in bone marrow cells impeded monocyte de-adhesion, thereby increasing vascular permeability and lesion formation, whereas somatic JAM-A deletion revealed no significant effects. Regions with disturbed flow displayed a focal enrichment and luminal redistribution of endothelial JAM-A and were preferentially protected by its deficiency. The functional expression and redistribution of endothelial JAM-A was increased by oxidized low-density lipoprotein, but confined by athero¬protective laminar flow through an up-regulation of miR-145, which repressed JAM-A. Our data identify endothelial JAM-A as an important effector molecule integrating atherogenic conditions to direct inflammatory cell entry at predilection sites of atherosclerosis.Circulation 09/2013; 129(1). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.004149 · 14.95 Impact Factor
- Biorheology 01/2013; 50(5):223-39. DOI:10.3233/BIR-130646 · 1.59 Impact Factor