Liquid meal composition and postprandial satiety hormones and perceived appetite and satiety in obese women during acute caloric restriction.

J Kanaley, Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, United States.
European Journal of Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 3.69). 01/2013; DOI: 10.1530/EJE-12-0884
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare postprandial satiety regulating hormone responses (pancreatic polypeptide [PP], peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY]) and visual analogue scale (VAS) assessed perceived appetite and satiety between liquid high protein (HP) and high carbohydrate (HC) meals in obese women during acute (24-h) caloric restriction. DESIGN: Eleven obese pre menopausal women completed two conditions in random order in which they consumed 1500 calories as six 250 calorie HP meals or six 250 calorie HC meals over a 12 h period. Blood samples were taken at baseline and every 20 min thereafter and analyzed for PP and PYY concentrations and related to VAS assessed perceived hunger and fullness. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was used to compare postprandial responses. RESULTS: The 12 h PP and PYY iAUC were greater (P≤0.05) during the HP condition (PP: 4727±1306 pg/ml•12 h, PYY: 1373±357 pg/ml•12 h) compared to the HC condition (PP: 2300±528 pg/ml•12 h, PYY: 754±246 pg/ml•12 h). Perceived hunger and fullness were not different between conditions (P>0.05). The greatest changes in PYY and perceived fullness occurred after the morning meals during both conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that in obese women during acute caloric restriction prior to weight loss 1) liquid HP meals, compared to HC meals, result in greater postprandial PP and PYY concentrations, an effect not associated with differential appetite or satiety responses, and 2) meal induced changes in PYY and satiety are greatest during the morning period, regardless of dietary macronutrient composition.

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    ABSTRACT: Background/objective:A distinct suppressive effect of a whey protein (including glycomacropeptide)-enriched preload drink on subsequent food intake in comparison with a maltodextrin carbohydrate-enriched preload was demonstrated in an earlier companion study with the same female subjects; however, the potential mediators underlying the effect are unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate how the ingestion of a whey protein-enriched preload beverage affected postprandial plasma concentrations of several satiety-related gastrointestinal hormones and metabolites in comparison with a maltodextrin carbohydrate-enriched preload.Subjects/methods:Eighteen normal-weight women were studied in a single-blind, randomized block design. Blood samples were collected at various time intervals for 120 min after consumption of a test drink (300 ml, ~1300 kJ) enriched (45 g) with either maltodextrin carbohydrate or whey protein containing naturally present glycomacropeptide.Results:Plasma-active ghrelin concentrations decreased after both maltodextrin carbohydrate- and whey protein-enriched test drinks (P<0.05). The whey protein-enriched beverage led to increased plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) at 60 and 75 min (P<0.05), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) at 90 min (P<0.001), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) at 90 and 120 min (P<0.01) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) from 15 to 120 min (P<0.05) compared with maltodextrin carbohydrate. Total amino acid, urea and ammonia plasma concentrations were also higher after whey protein compared with maltodextrin carbohydrate ingestion (P<0.01).Conclusions:Increased plasma concentrations of some gastrointestinal hormones related to satiety, particularly PP, and of amino acids and their metabolites, may have acted either singly or together to mediate the observed satiety response to whey protein.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 7 January 2015; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.266.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 01/2015; 69(2). DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2014.266 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the role of peptide YY (PYY) as a regulator of energy homeostasis was first highlighted only in 2002, our understanding of the physiological role of PYY has since rapidly advanced. In recent years, insights from mechanistic studies in patients undergoing bariatric surgery, from pancreatic islet research, from functional neuroimaging studies, and from exercise research have greatly added to the field, and these areas provide the focus of discussion for this narrative review. We critically discuss recent findings relating to the role of PYY in mediating the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery, the role of PYY in glucose homeostasis, the role of the hepatoportal PYY in mediating its central physiological effects, the specific modulation of brain regions by PYY, and the exercise-induced PYY response. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Physiology Volume 76 is February 10, 2014. Please see for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Physiology 10/2013; DOI:10.1146/annurev-physiol-021113-170404 · 14.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As obesity continues to be a global epidemic, research into the mechanisms of hunger and satiety and how those signals act to regulate energy homeostasis persists. Peptide YY (PYY) is an acute satiety signal released upon nutrient ingestion and has been shown to decrease food intake when administered exogenously. More recently, investigators have studied how different factors influence PYY release and circulating levels in humans. Some of these factors include exercise, macronutrient composition of the diet, body-weight status, adiposity levels, sex, race and ageing. The present article provides a succinct and comprehensive review of the recent literature published on the different factors that influence PYY release and circulating levels in humans. Where human data are insufficient, evidence in animal or cell models is summarised. Additionally, the present review explores the recent findings on PYY responses to different dietary fatty acids and how this new line of research will make an impact on future studies on PYY. Human demographics, such as sex and age, do not appear to influence PYY levels. Conversely, adiposity or BMI, race and acute exercise all influence circulating PYY levels. Both dietary fat and protein strongly stimulate PYY release. Furthermore, MUFA appear to result in a smaller PYY response compared with SFA and PUFA. PYY levels appear to be affected by acute exercise, macronutrient composition, adiposity, race and the composition of fatty acids from dietary fat.
    Nutrition Research Reviews 06/2014; DOI:10.1017/S0954422414000109 · 3.86 Impact Factor


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May 31, 2014